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Concussion. 2015 Aug 6;1(1):CNC3. doi: 10.2217/cnc.15.3. eCollection 2016 Mar.

Sensitivity and specificity of an eye movement tracking-based biomarker for concussion.

Samadani U1,2,3,1,2,3, Li M3,3, Qian M3,3, Laska E3,4,3,4, Ritlop R5,5, Kolecki R2,2, Reyes M1,2,1,2, Altomare L2,2, Sone JY2,2, Adem A2,2, Huang P2,2, Kondziolka D2,2, Wall S6,6, Frangos S7,7, Marmar C3,3.

Author information

Department of Neurosurgery, New York Harbor Health Care System, NY, USA.
Department of Neurosurgery, New York University, School of Medicine, NY, USA.
Steven & Alexandra Cohen Veterans Center for Post-Traumatic Stress & Traumatic Brain Injury, New York University Langone Medical Center, NY, USA.
Nathan Kline Institute for Psychiatric Research, Orangeburg, NJ, USA.
Oculogica Inc., NY, USA.
Department of Emergency Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, NY, USA.
Department of Trauma Surgery, New York University School of Medicine, NY, USA.



The purpose of the current study is to determine the sensitivity and specificity of an eye tracking method as a classifier for identifying concussion.


Brain injured and control subjects prospectively underwent both eye tracking and Sport Concussion Assessment Tool 3. The results of eye tracking biomarker based classifier models were then validated against a dataset of individuals not used in building a model. The area under the curve (AUC) of receiver operating characteristics was examined.


An optimal classifier based on best subset had an AUC of 0.878, and a cross-validated AUC of 0.852 in CT- subjects and an AUC of 0.831 in a validation dataset. The optimal misclassification rate in an external dataset (n = 254) was 13%.


If one defines concussion based on history, examination, radiographic and Sport Concussion Assessment Tool 3 criteria, it is possible to generate an eye tracking based biomarker that enables detection of concussion with reasonably high sensitivity and specificity.


biomarker; concussion; eye movement tracking

Conflict of interest statement

Financial & competing interests disclosure U Samadani has submitted intellectual property describing the technology utilized in this paper. These patents are owned by NYU and the VA and licensed to Oculogica Inc., a company co-founded by U Samadani and R Ritlop, and in which they have an equity interest. U Samadani, M Li, M Qian, E Laska and C Marmar are supported by the Steven and Alexandra Cohen Veterans Center for Post-Traumatic Stress and Traumatic Brain Injury. U Samadani was also supported by the Applied Research Support Fund at NYU School of Medicine. The authors have no other relevant affiliations or financial involvement with any organization or entity with a financial interest in or financial conflict with the subject matter or materials discussed in the manuscript apart from those disclosed. No writing assistance was utilized in the production of this manuscript.

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