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Leukemia. 2019 Feb;33(2):499-507. doi: 10.1038/s41375-018-0246-2. Epub 2018 Sep 10.

Risk of MGUS in relatives of multiple myeloma cases by clinical and tumor characteristics.

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Department of Health Sciences Research, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, USA.
Division of Hematology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, USA.
Department of Internal Medicine, Mercy Hospital, St. Louis, MO, USA.
Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, USA.
Department of Health Sciences Research, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, USA.


We and others have shown increased risk of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) in first-degree relatives of patients with multiple myeloma (MM). Whether familial risk of MGUS differs by the MM proband's age at onset, tumor or clinical characteristics is unknown. MM and smoldering MM (SMM) cases (Nā€‰=ā€‰430) were recruited from the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota between 2005-2015. First-degree relatives over age 40 provided serum samples for evaluation of MGUS (Nā€‰=ā€‰1179). Age and sex specific rates of MGUS among first-degree relatives were compared to a population-based sample. Cytogenetic subtypes were classified by Fluorescence in situ hybridization. MGUS was detected in 75 first-degree relatives for an age- and sex- adjusted prevalence of 5.8% (95% CI: 4.5-7.2). Prevalence of MGUS in first-degree relatives was 2.4 fold (95% CI: 1.9-2.9) greater than expected rates. Familial risk did not differ by proband's age at diagnosis, gender, isotype, IgH translocation, or trisomy. This study confirms first-degree relatives of MM cases have a significantly higher risk of MGUS compared to the general population, regardless of age, gender, or tumor characteristics. In selected situations, such as multiple affected first-degree relatives, screening of first-degree relatives of MM cases could be considered for follow-up and prevention strategies.

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