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Diabetes Care. 2018 Nov;41(11):2370-2376. doi: 10.2337/dc18-1131. Epub 2018 Sep 10.

Association of Time in Range, as Assessed by Continuous Glucose Monitoring, With Diabetic Retinopathy in Type 2 Diabetes.

Author information

1
Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Shanghai Jiao Tong University Affiliated Sixth People's Hospital, Shanghai Clinical Center for Diabetes, Shanghai Key Clinical Center for Metabolic Disease, Shanghai Diabetes Institute, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Diabetes Mellitus, Shanghai, China.
2
Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Shanghai Jiao Tong University Affiliated Sixth People's Hospital, Shanghai Clinical Center for Diabetes, Shanghai Key Clinical Center for Metabolic Disease, Shanghai Diabetes Institute, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Diabetes Mellitus, Shanghai, China zhoujian@sjtu.edu.cn wpjia@sjtu.edu.cn.
3
Diabetes Institute of the Walter Reed National Military Medical Center, Bethesda, MD.
4
Medtronic Diabetes, Northridge, CA.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) has provided new measures of glycemic control that link to diabetes complications. This study investigated the association between the time in range (TIR) assessed by CGM and diabetic retinopathy (DR).

RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:

A total of 3,262 patients with type 2 diabetes were recruited. TIR was defined as the percentage of time spent within the glucose range of 3.9-10.0 mmol/L during a 24-h period. Measures of glycemic variability (GV) were assessed as well. DR was determined by using fundus photography and graded as 1) non-DR; 2) mild nonproliferative DR (NPDR); 3) moderate NPDR; or 4) vision-threatening DR (VTDR).

RESULTS:

The overall prevalence of DR was 23.9% (mild NPDR 10.9%, moderate NPDR 6.1%, VTDR 6.9%). Patients with more advanced DR had significantly less TIR and higher measures of GV (all P for trend <0.01). The prevalence of DR on the basis of severity decreased with ascending TIR quartiles (all P for trend <0.001), and the severity of DR was inversely correlated with TIR quartiles (r = -0.147; P < 0.001). Multinomial logistic regression revealed significant associations between TIR and all stages of DR (mild NPDR, P = 0.018; moderate NPDR, P = 0.014; VTDR, P = 0.019) after controlling for age, sex, BMI, diabetes duration, blood pressure, lipid profile, and HbA1c. Further adjustment of GV metrics partially attenuated these associations, although the link between TIR and the presence of any DR remained significant.

CONCLUSIONS:

TIR assessed by CGM is associated with DR in type 2 diabetes.

PMID:
30201847
DOI:
10.2337/dc18-1131
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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