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Biochemistry (Mosc). 2018 Jul;83(7):800-812. doi: 10.1134/S0006297918070040.

The Regulatory Role of NAD in Human and Animal Cells.

Author information

1
Institute of Cytology, Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg, 194064, Russia.
2
Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic University, St. Petersburg, 195251, Russia.
3
Institute of Cytology, Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg, 194064, Russia. andrey.nikiforov@gmail.com.

Abstract

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and its phosphorylated form NADP are the major coenzymes in the redox reactions of various essential metabolic pathways. NAD+ also serves as a substrate for several families of regulatory proteins, such as protein deacetylases (sirtuins), ADP-ribosyltransferases, and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases, that control vital cell processes including gene expression, DNA repair, apoptosis, mitochondrial biogenesis, unfolded protein response, and many others. NAD+ is also a precursor for calcium-mobilizing secondary messengers. Proper regulation of these NAD-dependent metabolic and signaling pathways depends on how efficiently cells can maintain their NAD levels. Generally, mammalian cells regulate their NAD supply through biosynthesis from the precursors delivered with the diet: nicotinamide and nicotinic acid (vitamin B3), as well as nicotinamide riboside and nicotinic acid riboside. Administration of NAD precursors has been demonstrated to restore NAD levels in tissues (i.e., to produce beneficial therapeutic effects) in preclinical models of various diseases, such as neurodegenerative disorders, obesity, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome.

PMID:
30200865
DOI:
10.1134/S0006297918070040
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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