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Viruses. 2018 Sep 1;10(9). pii: E471. doi: 10.3390/v10090471.

Antiviral Activity of Fermented Ginseng Extracts against a Broad Range of Influenza Viruses.

Wang Y1,2, Jung YJ3,4, Kim KH5, Kwon Y6, Kim YJ7,8, Zhang Z9,10, Kang HS11, Wang BZ12, Quan FS13,14, Kang SM15,16.

Author information

1
Center for Inflammation, Immunity and Infection, Institute for Biomedical Sciences Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30303, USA. ywang91@student.gsu.edu.
2
Department of Biology, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30303, USA. ywang91@student.gsu.edu.
3
Center for Inflammation, Immunity and Infection, Institute for Biomedical Sciences Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30303, USA. yjung8@student.gsu.edu.
4
Department of Biology, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30303, USA. yjung8@student.gsu.edu.
5
Center for Inflammation, Immunity and Infection, Institute for Biomedical Sciences Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30303, USA. kihyekim4282@gmail.com.
6
Center for Inflammation, Immunity and Infection, Institute for Biomedical Sciences Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30303, USA. ymankwon@gmail.com.
7
Center for Inflammation, Immunity and Infection, Institute for Biomedical Sciences Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30303, USA. yujinsm@gmail.com.
8
Department of Biology, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30303, USA. yujinsm@gmail.com.
9
Center for Inflammation, Immunity and Infection, Institute for Biomedical Sciences Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30303, USA. zzhang12@student.gsu.edu.
10
Department of Biology, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30303, USA. zzhang12@student.gsu.edu.
11
Metabolab, Cancer Research Institute, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-799, Korea. metabolab@gmail.com.
12
Center for Inflammation, Immunity and Infection, Institute for Biomedical Sciences Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30303, USA. bwang23@gsu.edu.
13
Center for Inflammation, Immunity and Infection, Institute for Biomedical Sciences Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30303, USA. fquan01@gmail.com.
14
Department of Medical Zoology, Kyung Hee University School of Medicine, Seoul 130-705, Korea. fquan01@gmail.com.
15
Center for Inflammation, Immunity and Infection, Institute for Biomedical Sciences Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30303, USA. skang24@gsu.edu.
16
Department of Biology, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30303, USA. skang24@gsu.edu.

Abstract

Ginseng products used as herb nutritional supplements are orally consumed and fermented to ginsenoside compounds by the intestinal microbes. In this study, we investigated antiviral protective effects of fermented ginseng extracts against different strains of influenza viruses in genetically diverse mouse models. Intranasal coinoculation of mice with fermented ginseng extract and influenza virus improved survival rates and conferred protection against H1N1, H3N2, H5N1, and H7N9 strains, with the efficacy dependent on the dose of ginseng samples. Antiviral protection by fermented ginseng extract was observed in different genetic backgrounds of mice and in the deficient conditions of key adaptive immune components (CD4, CD8, B cell, MHCII). The mice that survived primary virus inoculation with fermented ginseng extract developed immunity against the secondary infection with homologous and heterosubtypic viruses. In vitro cell culture experiments showed moderate virus neutralizing activity by fermented ginseng extract, probably by inhibiting hemagglutination and neuraminidase activity. This study suggests that fermented ginseng extracts might provide a means to treat influenza disease regardless of virus strains.

KEYWORDS:

antiviral activity; fermented ginseng; hemagglutinin; influenza virus; neuraminidase

PMID:
30200514
PMCID:
PMC6164659
DOI:
10.3390/v10090471
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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