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Molecules. 2018 Sep 1;23(9). pii: E2220. doi: 10.3390/molecules23092220.

Daily Consumption of Chocolate Rich in Flavonoids Decreases Cellular Genotoxicity and Improves Biochemical Parameters of Lipid and Glucose Metabolism.

Author information

1
Facultad de Ciencias Químicas e Ingeniería, Universidad Autónoma de Baja California-Campus Tijuana, Calzada Universidad 14418, Parque Industrial Internacional Tijuana, C.P. 22390 Tijuana, Mexico. aldo.leyva@uabc.edu.mx.
2
Facultad de Ciencias Químicas e Ingeniería, Universidad Autónoma de Baja California-Campus Tijuana, Calzada Universidad 14418, Parque Industrial Internacional Tijuana, C.P. 22390 Tijuana, Mexico. ale.santoscoy@gmail.com.
3
Laboratoire Écotoxiquegénomique, Eau Terre Environment, Institut national de la Recherche Scientifique (INRS-ETE), Rue 490 Couronne, Quebec City, QC G1K 9A9, Canada. linda_ramona.lara-jacobo@ete.inrs.ca.
4
Department of Cellular and Structural Biology, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, 7703 Floyd Curl Drive, San Antonio, TX 78229, USA. anayenaiv@gmail.com.
5
Facultad de Ciencias Químicas e Ingeniería, Universidad Autónoma de Baja California-Campus Tijuana, Calzada Universidad 14418, Parque Industrial Internacional Tijuana, C.P. 22390 Tijuana, Mexico. ngonzalez8@uabc.edu.mx.

Abstract

In recent years, the incidence of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, obesity, and diabetes has increased largely worldwide. In the present work, we evaluated the genoprotective effect of the consumption of flavonoids-rich chocolate on 84 young volunteers. Biochemical indicators related to the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular risk and metabolic syndrome were also determined. A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study was performed in the Autonomous University of Baja California. The treatments comprised the daily consumption of either 2 g of dark chocolate containing 70% cocoa, or 2 g of milk chocolate, for 6 months. The total amount of phenolic compounds and flavonoids was determined in both types of chocolate. Anthropometrical and Biochemical parameters were recorded prior to and after the study. The evaluation of the genotoxicity in buccal epithelial cells was performed throughout the duration of the study. Flavonoids from cocoa in dark chocolate significantly prevented DNA damage, and improved the nucleus integrity of cells. This effect could be related to the antioxidant capacity of the dark chocolate that decreased cellular stress. Biochemical parameters (total cholesterol, triglycerides, and LDL-cholesterol level in blood) and anthropometrical parameters (waist circumference) were improved after six months of daily intake of 2 g of dark chocolate with a 70% of cocoa.

KEYWORDS:

dark chocolate; flavonoids; genotoxicity; glucose metabolism; lipid metabolism

PMID:
30200398
PMCID:
PMC6225491
DOI:
10.3390/molecules23092220
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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