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Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol. 2018 Oct;11(10):959-970. doi: 10.1080/17512433.2018.1519391. Epub 2018 Oct 11.

LDL-C does not cause cardiovascular disease: a comprehensive review of the current literature.

Author information

1
a Independent investigator , Lund , Sweden.
2
b Laboratoire Coeur et Nutrition, TIMC-IMAG, School of Medicine , University of Grenoble-Alpes , Grenoble , France.
3
c Department of Molecular Pharmacology and Physiology, Center for Preclinical and Clinical Research on PTSD , University of South Florida , Tampa , FL , USA.
4
d Department of Psychology, Center for Preclinical and Clinical Research on PTSD , University of South Florida , Tampa , FL , USA.
5
e Japan Institute of Pharmacovigilance , Osaka , Japan.
6
f Department of Internal Medicine, Toyama Jonan Onsen Daini Hospital , University of Toyama , Toyama , Japan.
7
g Strömstad Academy , Strömstad , Sweden.
8
h Western Vascular Institute, University Hospital Galway & Galway Clinic , National University of Ireland & Royal college of Surgeons of Ireland affiliated Hospital , Galway , Ireland.
9
i East Cheshire Trust, Macclesfield District General Hospital , Macclesfield , UK.
10
j Private Practice in Cardiology , Tyler , Texas , USA.
11
k Medical Service , Comando Brigata Alpina "Julia"/Multinational Land Force , Udine , Italy.
12
l Pathology and Laboratory Medicine Service, VA Boston Healthcare System West Roxbury , Harvard Medical School , Boston , MA , USA.
13
m Faculty of Pharmaceutical Science , Nagoya City University , Mizuhoku, Nagoya , Japan.
14
n New York Medical College , The American Institute of Stress , New York , NY , USA.
15
o Wallenberg Laboratory for Cardiovascluar and Metabolic Research, Sahlgren's Academy , University of Gothenburg , Gothenburg , Sweden.
16
p Department of Metabolism , Columbia University , New York , NY , USA.
17
q Independent Researcher , Lidingö , Sweden.

Abstract

For half a century, a high level of total cholesterol (TC) or low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) has been considered to be the major cause of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease (CVD), and statin treatment has been widely promoted for cardiovascular prevention. However, there is an increasing understanding that the mechanisms are more complicated and that statin treatment, in particular when used as primary prevention, is of doubtful benefit. Areas covered: The authors of three large reviews recently published by statin advocates have attempted to validate the current dogma. This article delineates the serious errors in these three reviews as well as other obvious falsifications of the cholesterol hypothesis. Expert commentary: Our search for falsifications of the cholesterol hypothesis confirms that it is unable to satisfy any of the Bradford Hill criteria for causality and that the conclusions of the authors of the three reviews are based on misleading statistics, exclusion of unsuccessful trials and by ignoring numerous contradictory observations.

KEYWORDS:

Atherosclerosis; cardiovascular; cholesterol lowering; coronary heart disease; exposure–response; mortality; statin

PMID:
30198808
DOI:
10.1080/17512433.2018.1519391
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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