Send to

Choose Destination
Kidney Int Rep. 2018 May 22;3(5):1100-1109. doi: 10.1016/j.ekir.2018.05.004. eCollection 2018 Sep.

Soluble Urokinase Plasminogen Activator Receptor (suPAR) and All-Cause and Cardiovascular Mortality in Diverse Hemodialysis Patients.

Author information

CNR-IFC, Clinical Epidemiology and Physiopathology of Renal Diseases and Hypertension Unit, Reggio Calabria, Italy.
Nephrology and Renal Transplantation Unit, Reggio Calabria, Italy.
Department of Medicine, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois, USA.



The soluble receptor of urokinase plasminogen activator (suPAR) is an innate immunity/inflammation biomarker predicting cardiovascular (CV) and non-CV events in various conditions, including type 2 diabetic patients on dialysis. However, the relationship between suPAR and clinical outcomes in the hemodialysis population at large has not been tested.


We measured plasma suPAR levels (R&D enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay [ELISA]) in 1038 hemodialysis patients with a follow-up of 2.9 years (interquartile range = 1.7-4.2) who were enrolled in the PROGREDIRE study, a cohort study involving 35 dialysis units in 2 regions in Southern Italy.


suPAR was strongly (P < 0.001) and independently related to female gender (β = -0.160), age (β = 0.216), dialysis vintage (β = 0.264), CV comorbidities (β = 0.105), alkaline phosphatase (β = 0.136), albumin (β = -0.147), and body mass index (BMI; β = 0.174) (all P < 0.006). In fully adjusted analyses, suPAR tertiles predicted the risk of all-cause mortality (third tertile vs. first tertile hazard ratio (HR) = 1.91, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.47 - 2.48, P < 0.001), CV mortality (HR = 1.47, 95% CI = 1.03-2.09, P = 0.03), and non-CV mortality (HR = 1.94, 95% CI = 1.28-2.93, P = 0.002); these relationships were not modified by diabetes or other risk factors. suPAR added only modest prognostic risk discrimination and reclassification power for these outcomes to parsimonious models based on simple clinical variables.


In conclusion, suPAR robustly predicted all-cause and both CV and non-CV mortality in a large unselected hemodialysis population. Intervention studies are needed to definitively test the hypothesis that suPAR is causally implicated in clinical outcomes in this population.


cardiovascular mortality; hemodialysis; mortality; noncardiovascular mortality; soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR)

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Elsevier Science Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center