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J Relig Health. 2019 Aug;58(4):1146-1160. doi: 10.1007/s10943-018-0695-y.

Muraqaba as a Mindfulness-Based Therapy in Islamic Psychotherapy.

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Emmanuel College of Victoria University in the University of Toronto, Vaughan, Canada.


This article first describes Sufism, the mystical/spiritual tradition of Islam then move to define Islamic psychotherapy and the various aspects of muraqaba by providing an overview of the Sufi literature. I will also highlight how the techniques used in muraqaba can be adapted and used as mindfulness-based stress reduction, mindfulness-based cognitive therapy, meditation, transcendental meditation, mind-body techniques (meditation, relaxation), and body-mind techniques. Although muraqaba might not be effective for all mental health issues, I suggest a possible value of muraqaba for treating symptomatic anxiety, depression, and pain. Furthermore, Muslim clinicians must be properly trained in classical Sufi traditions before using muraqaba techniques in their clinical practice.


Body-mind techniques; Islamic psychotherapy; Meditation; Mind-body techniques (meditation, relaxation); Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy; Mindfulness-based stress reduction; Muraqaba; Transcendental meditation


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