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J Neuroimmune Pharmacol. 2019 Jun;14(2):188-199. doi: 10.1007/s11481-018-9804-7. Epub 2018 Sep 6.

Executive Dysfunction Early Postnatal Biomarkers among Children Born Extremely Preterm.

Author information

1
Boston Children's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, 02115-5724, USA. alan.leviton@childrens.harvard.edu.
2
Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, USA.
3
Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, 02115, USA.
4
Boston Children's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, 02115-5724, USA.
5
Rainbow Babies & Children's Hospital and Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, USA.
6
University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC, USA.
7
Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, 02111, USA.

Abstract

We evaluated the relationship between blood levels of inflammatory and neurotrophic proteins during the first postnatal month in 692 children born before the 28th week of gestation and executive function limitations among those 10-year olds who had an IQ ≥ 70. The measures of dysfunction were Z-scores ≤ -1 on the Differential Ability Scales-II working memory (WM) assessment) (N = 164), the NEPSY-II (A Developmental NEuroPSYchological Assessment-II) Inhibition-Inhibition assessment) (N = 350), the NEPSY-II Inhibition-Switching assessment) (N = 345), as well as a Z-score ≤ -1 on all three assessments (identified as the executive dysfunction composite (N = 104). Increased risks of the executive dysfunction composite associated with high concentrations of inflammatory proteins (IL-8, TNF-α, and ICAM-1) were modulated by high concentrations of neurotrophic proteins. This pattern of modulation by neurotrophins of increased risk associated with inflammation was also seen for the working memory limitation, but only with high concentrations of IL-8 and TNF-α, and the switching limitation, but only with high concentrations of ICAM-1. We infer that among children born extremely preterm, risks of executive function limitations might be explained by perinatal systemic inflammation in the absence of adequate neurotrophic capability.

KEYWORDS:

Executive function; Infant, premature/blood; Inflammation; Neurodevelopment; Neurotrophic factors

PMID:
30191383
PMCID:
PMC6401360
[Available on 2020-06-01]
DOI:
10.1007/s11481-018-9804-7

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