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Genes (Basel). 2018 Sep 5;9(9). pii: E442. doi: 10.3390/genes9090442.

Complemented Palindromic Small RNAs First Discovered from SARS Coronavirus.

Liu C1, Chen Z2,3, Hu Y4, Ji H5,6, Yu D7, Shen W8, Li S9, Ruan J10, Bu W11, Gao S12,13.

Author information

1
Laboratory of Medical Molecular Virology, School of Medicine, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071, China. changliu@nankai.edu.cn.
2
State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Etiological Biology and Key Laboratory of Veterinary Parasitology of Gansu Province, Lanzhou Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Science, Lanzhou 730046, China. chenze@caas.cn.
3
Co-Innovation Center for Prevention and Control of Important Animal Infectious Diseases and Zoonoses, Yangzhou 225009, China. chenze@caas.cn.
4
Laboratory of Medical Molecular Virology, School of Medicine, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071, China. huyue2016@mail.nankai.edu.cn.
5
College of Life Sciences, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071, China. haishuo_ji@mail.nankai.edu.cn.
6
Institute of Statistics, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071, China. haishuo_ji@mail.nankai.edu.cn.
7
College of Life Sciences, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071, China. deshui_yu@mail.nankai.edu.cn.
8
Laboratory of Medical Molecular Virology, School of Medicine, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071, China. shenwy@mail.nankai.edu.cn.
9
College of Life Sciences, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071, China. siyu_li@mail.nankai.edu.cn.
10
School of Mathematical Sciences, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071, China. jsruan@nankai.edu.cn.
11
College of Life Sciences, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071, China. wenjunbu@nankai.edu.cn.
12
College of Life Sciences, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071, China. gao_shan@mail.nankai.edu.cn.
13
Institute of Statistics, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071, China. gao_shan@mail.nankai.edu.cn.

Abstract

In this study, we report for the first time the existence of complemented palindromic small RNAs (cpsRNAs) and propose that cpsRNAs and palindromic small RNAs (psRNAs) constitute a novel class of small RNAs. The first discovered 19-nt cpsRNA UUAACAAGCUUGUUAAAGA, named SARS-CoV-cpsR-19, was detected from a 22-bp DNA complemented palindrome TCTTTAACAAGCTTGTTAAAGA in the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) genome. The phylogenetic analysis supported that this DNA complemented palindrome originated from bat betacoronavirus. The results of RNA interference (RNAi) experiments showed that one 19-nt segment corresponding to SARS-CoV-cpsR-19 significantly induced cell apoptosis. Using this joint analysis of the molecular function and phylogeny, our results suggested that SARS-CoV-cpsR-19 could play a role in SARS-CoV infection or pathogenesis. The discovery of cpsRNAs has paved a way to find novel markers for pathogen detection and to reveal the mechanisms underlying infection or pathogenesis from a different point of view. Researchers can use cpsRNAs to study the infection or pathogenesis of pathogenic viruses when these viruses are not available. The discovery of psRNAs and cpsRNAs, as a novel class of small RNAs, also inspire researchers to investigate DNA palindromes and DNA complemented palindromes with lengths of psRNAs and cpsRNAs in viral genomes.

KEYWORDS:

DNA complemented palindrome; complemented palindromic small RNA; palindromic small RNA; severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus; small RNA

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