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J Knee Surg. 2018 Sep 6. doi: 10.1055/s-0038-1669901. [Epub ahead of print]

Evaluation of Accuracy of a Three-Dimensional Printed Model in Open-Wedge High Tibial Osteotomy.

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Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Kyungpook National University Hospital, Daegu, South Korea.
School of Mechanical Engineering, Yeungjin College, Daegu, Korea.
Department of Preventive medicine, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, South Korea.


The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of a three-dimensional (3D) printed model for open-wedge high tibial osteotomy (HTO). This study retrospectively evaluated 20 patients with medial knee osteoarthritis and varus deformity. Between October 2015 and July 2016, the patients underwent open-wedge HTO using a 3D printed model. The mean age of patients was 55.2 years (range, 51-60 years). The mean preoperative mechanical femorotibial angle (mFTA) was varus 7.8 degrees (range, varus 4.7-11.6 degrees). After measuring the target angle using full-length lower limb weight-bearing radiography, the osteotomy was simulated using 3D images obtained from computed tomography (CT) with the 3D Slicer program. On the basis of the simulated osteotomy section and the target angle, the model was then designed and printed. Open-wedge HTO was then performed by applying the 3D printed model to the opening gap. The accuracy of osteotomy and the change in posterior tibial slope (PTS) angle were evaluated. The weight-bearing line on the tibial plateau was corrected from a preoperative mean of 19.5 ± 9.8% to a postoperative mean of 63.1 ± 6.1% (p < 0.001). The postoperative values were not statistically significantly different from the preoperative target points (p = 0.688). The mFTA was corrected to a postoperative mean of valgus 3.8 ± 1.4 degrees. The PTS angle showed no significant change (p = 0.256). A 3D printed model using CT may be useful for preoperative planning of open-wedge HTO. Satisfactory correction can be obtained without a change in the PTS.


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