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Surv Ophthalmol. 2019 Jan - Feb;64(1):90-100. doi: 10.1016/j.survophthal.2018.08.003. Epub 2018 Sep 3.

Methods for the study of near, intermediate vision, and accommodation: an overview of subjective and objective approaches.

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Vissum Instituto Oftalmologico de Alicante, Alicante, Spain.
Austrian Academy of Opthalmology, Vienna, Austria.
Moorfields Eye Hospital, London, UK.
London Vision Clinic, London, UK.
Institute for Vision Science Ruhr University Eye Hospital, Bochum, Germany.
Vissum Instituto Oftalmologico de Alicante, Alicante, Spain; Austrian Academy of Opthalmology, Vienna, Austria; Moorfields Eye Hospital, London, UK; London Vision Clinic, London, UK; Institute for Vision Science Ruhr University Eye Hospital, Bochum, Germany; Division of Ophthalmology, Universidad Miguel Hernández, Alicante, Spain. Electronic address:



To present an overview of contemporary methods and metrics used to measure near vision, intermediate vision, and accommodation.


A search in PubMed was performed with the following key phrases: near vision, intermediate vision, objective and subjective methods for the measurement of accommodation. For subjective methods, we included only those that are most widely used, had a scientific evidence of its outcomes, and have an easy availability at the doctor's office. For objective methods, we included those aberrometers or autorefractometers that have been proven to give good repeatability and reproducibility in the study of changes in optical power of the eye along the accommodative process.


Near vision should be tested at 40 cm and intermediate vision at 63 or 80 cm. Accommodation should be measured with objective methods such as autorefractometers or aberrometers.


The standardization for the measurement of near and intermediate vision, as well as the reading charts, will facilitate the comparison of visual outcomes between studies. Measurement of accommodation should be performed with objective methods as subjective methods tend to overestimate the accommodative power.


accommodation; depth of field; intermediate vision measurement; near vision measurement; objective methods; reading charts; subjective methods

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