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Indian J Sex Transm Dis AIDS. 2018 Jan-Jun;39(1):28-33. doi: 10.4103/ijstd.IJSTD_89_16.

Metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease risk assessment among human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals on antiretroviral therapy.

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Department of Medicine, St. John's Medical College, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India.
Karnataka Health Promotion Trust, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India.
Lady Willingdon TB Centre, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India.
St John's Research Institute, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India.
NACO, New Delhi, India.
Department of Paediatrics, St. John's Medical College, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India.



The association of cardiovascular risk with first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Indians has been a matter of concern with the background of a high risk in South Asians.


This study aimed to compare metabolic syndrome and its components, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, and cardiovascular risk among patients on first-line ART (Group 1) with age-matched, ART-naïve human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients (Group 2) and normal controls (Group 3).


Patients attending a tertiary care center in Mysore were enrolled in the study after obtaining informed consent and controls were chosen from relatives of patients.


The total number of patients enrolled in the study was 217 (males 111; females 106), and the mean age of these patients was 34.1 ± 7.4 years. The number of patients in Group 1 (HIV+, ART experienced) was 76; in Group 2 (HIV+, ART naïve) was 71, and in Group 3 (HIV-) was 70. There was no statistically significant difference in the prevalence of metabolic syndrome between the three groups. On comparing the components of metabolic syndrome, serum triglycerides (mg/dl) were significantly higher in the ART group (Group 1: 149.5 [interquartile range (IQR): 84-187], Group 2: 108 [IQR: 74-152], and Group 3: 141.5 [IQR: 89-192]; P = 0.014) and serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol was higher in HIV-uninfected individuals (Group 1: 37.5 ± 11.83, Group 2: 31.5 ± 12.23, and Group 3: 40.1 ± 12.09; P = 0.0002). There was no association between metabolic syndrome, duration of HIV, and type of first-line ART. Total and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol were significantly higher in the ART group. Homeostatic model assessment and Framingham scores did not reveal any significant difference across the three groups.


HIV-infected individuals on ART had higher levels of triglycerides, LDL, and total cholesterol, but no increased cardiovascular risk compared to other groups.


Antiretroviral therapy; cardiovascular risk; metabolic syndrome

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