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N Engl J Med. 2018 Sep 6;379(10):934-947. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1805104.

Rituximab plus Lenalidomide in Advanced Untreated Follicular Lymphoma.

Collaborators (131)

Abdel-Samad N, Abdo-Matkiwsky M, Abraham J, Abrisqueta P, Anglaret B, Barnes JA, Benbrahim O, Bierman PJ, Bonnet C, Brault P, Bron D, Brooks BJ Jr, Byeff P, Casanova M, Cheung M, Choudhary Y, Comeau T, Cooper B, Couban S, Cox MC, Crump M, Deau Fischer B, Deconinck E, Deeren D, de la Cruz Vicente F, Delarue R, Del Campo R, Delmer A, Delwail V, Duggan PR, Eisenmann DJRM, El Yamani A, Eradat HA, Fabbro M, Farber C, Fisher DC, Fleischman RA, Fleck E, Fornecker LM, Foussard C, Gabarre J, Gaffar YA, Gallardo D, Ghazal H, Giagounidis A, Gill K, Glaisner S, Gonzalez H, Greenberg RH, Goubran Messiha H, Goy A, Gressin R, Gyan E, Hart LL, Hatake K, Hiddemann W, Hodossy B, Horkheimer I, Hoyer RJ, Huebel K, Ishikawa T, Izutsu K, Jardel H, Jhangiani HS, Johnson N, Joly B, Jourdan E, Kargar Samani K, Kato K, Kiguchi T, Kobayashi T, Kohser F, Koike M, Kouroukis C T, Laferriere N, Lamy de la Chapelle T, Landau DA, Lawler WE, Lemieux B, Levitan DA, Longree L, Lopez J, Mace J, Maerevoet M, Maigre M, Marjanovic Z, Michel J, Mounier C, Muntanola A, Ngirabacu MC, Nicolas-Virelizier E, Novelli S, Offner F, Palomera L, Pandit LH, Panwalkar A, Pierre P, Pignon JM, Pinto A, Plöger C, Pranger D, Quick DP, Reyes EA, Robin V, Robu D, Rodriguez Salazar MJ, Rosen PJ, Rosenbluth J, Sadot-Lebouvier S, Sangha R, Segota Z, Shapira I, Shtivelband M, Simon M, Soekler M, Soubeyran P, Taper J, Tereblo HR, Terol MJ, The AS, Ueda Y, van den Neste E, van Eygen K, van Hoof A, Vanstraelen G, Verner E, Warburton P, Yamamoto G, Yokoyama H, Zerazhi H, Zinzani PL.

Author information

1
From Université Lille, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire (CHU), Groupe de Recherche sur les formes Injectables et les Technologies Associées, Lille (F.M.), CHU Régional de Nancy, Service d'Hématologie, Vandoeuvre lès Nancy (P.F.), Institut Paoli-Calmettes (R.B.) and Department of Pathology, Institut Paoli-Calmettes, Centre de Recherche en Cancerologie de Marseille, INSERM, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Aix-Marseille Université (L.X.), Marseille, Centre Henri Becquerel, Unité 1245 and Département d'Hématologie, Université de Rouen, Rouen (H.T.), Institut d'Hématologie de Basse Normandie, Caen (C.F.), CHU Le Bocage Service d'Hématologie Clinique, Dijon (R.-O.C.), Hôpital Henri Mondor Unité Hémopathies Lymphoïdes, Créteil (C.H.), Centre Hospitalier Départemental Vendée Service d'Onco-Hématologie, La Roche sur Yon (H.M.), Institut Universitaire du Cancer de Toulouse Oncopole Service d'Hématologie, Toulouse (L.Y.), CHU Bordeaux, Service d'Hématologie, Bordeaux (K.B.), Hôpital Saint Louis Service d'Onco-Hématologie, Paris (P.B.), Gustave Roussy Cancer, Villejuif (V.R.), Centre Hospitalier Annecy Genevois Service, Annecy (N.D.), CHU de Nantes-Hôtel Dieu Service d'Hématologie Clinique, Centre de Recherche en Cancerologie et Immunologie, INSERM, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Université de Nantes, Nantes (S.L.G.), Centre Hospitalier Métropole Savoie Service Hématologie, Chambery (G.M.P.), Department of Hematology, CHU Montpellier, University of Montpellier, Montpellier (G.C.), and Hospices Civils de Lyon, Centre Hospitalier Lyon-Sud, University of Lyon, Pierre-Benite (G.A.S.) - all in France; the Department of Lymphoma and Myeloma, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston (N.H.F.); the Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York (M.L.P.); the Department of Medicine, Division of Medical Oncology, University of Washington, Seattle (E.N.L.); Sarah Cannon Research Institute-Tennessee Oncology, Nashville (I.W.F.); Washington University School of Medicine, Siteman Cancer Center, St. Louis (N.L.B.); the Department of Hematology, Hospital Universitario de Salamanca and Instituto de Investigación Biomédica de Salamanca, Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Cáncer, Salamanca (A.M.G.-S.), and the Department of Hematology, Hospital Clinic de Barcelona, Barcelona (A.L.-G.) - both in Spain; CHU de Québec, Hôpital de l'Enfant-Jésus, Quebec (J.-F.L.), and British Columbia Cancer Centre for Lymphoid Cancer, University of British Columbia, Vancouver (L.H.S.) - both in Canada; the Department of Hematology and Oncology, Tokai University Hospital, Kanagawa, Japan (K.A.); Instituto Português de Oncologia Lisboa Francisco Gentil Departamento de Hematologia, Lisbon (M.G.S.); the Department of Hematology, CHU Université Catholique de Louvain Namur, Yvoir (M.A.), and the Department of Hematology, Ziekenhuis Netwerk Antwerpen Stuivenberg, Antwerp (P.Z.) - both in Belgium; the Department of Hematology, National Cancer Center Hospital, Tokyo, Japan (K.T.); and Celgene, Summit, NJ (D.L., J.W.).

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Rituximab plus chemotherapy has been shown to be effective in patients with advanced-stage, previously untreated follicular lymphoma; nevertheless, most patients will have a relapse. Combination immunotherapy with lenalidomide and rituximab is an immunomodulatory regimen that has shown promising activity in patients with indolent B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.

METHODS:

We conducted this multicenter, international, phase 3 superiority trial to evaluate rituximab plus lenalidomide, as compared with rituximab plus chemotherapy, in patients with previously untreated follicular lymphoma. Patients were randomly assigned to receive one of the two regimens, followed by maintenance monotherapy with rituximab. Treatment with rituximab plus lenalidomide consisted of 18 cycles of the two drugs, followed by rituximab maintenance therapy every 8 weeks for 12 cycles (six additional doses). Treatment with rituximab plus chemotherapy consisted of the investigator's choice of one of three rituximab-based regimens, followed by maintenance monotherapy with rituximab every 8 weeks for 12 cycles. The primary end points were complete response (confirmed or unconfirmed) at 120 weeks and progression-free survival.

RESULTS:

A total of 1030 patients were randomly assigned to receive rituximab plus lenalidomide (513 patients) or rituximab plus chemotherapy (517 patients). The rate of confirmed or unconfirmed complete response at 120 weeks was similar in the two groups: 48% (95% confidence interval [CI], 44 to 53) in the rituximab-lenalidomide group and 53% (95% CI, 49 to 57) in the rituximab-chemotherapy group (P=0.13). The interim 3-year rate of progression-free survival was 77% (95% CI, 72 to 80) and 78% (95% CI, 74 to 82), respectively. A higher percentage of patients in the rituximab-chemotherapy group had grade 3 or 4 neutropenia (32% vs. 50%) and febrile neutropenia of any grade (2% vs. 7%), and a higher percentage of patients in the rituximab-lenalidomide group had grade 3 or 4 cutaneous reactions (7% vs. 1%).

CONCLUSIONS:

Among patients with previously untreated follicular lymphoma, efficacy results were similar with rituximab plus lenalidomide and rituximab plus chemotherapy (with both regimens followed by rituximab maintenance therapy). The safety profile differed in the two groups. (Funded by Celgene; RELEVANCE ClinicalTrials.gov numbers, NCT01476787 and NCT01650701 , and EudraCT number, 2011-002792-42 .).

PMID:
30184451
DOI:
10.1056/NEJMoa1805104
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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