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J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2018 Sep 5:271678X18799241. doi: 10.1177/0271678X18799241. [Epub ahead of print]

Hypercapnia increases brain viscoelasticity.

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1 Berlin Center for Advanced Neuroimaging, Charité - Universitätsmedizin, Berlin, Germany.
2 Bernstein Center for Computational Neuroscience, Berlin, Germany.
3 Department of Radiology, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany.
4 Department of Neurology, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany.
5 Laboratory of FMRI Technology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA.
6 Institute of Medical Informatics, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany.


Brain function, the brain's metabolic activity, cerebral blood flow (CBF), and intracranial pressure are intimately linked within the tightly autoregulated regime of intracranial physiology in which the role of tissue viscoelasticity remains elusive. We applied multifrequency magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) paired with CBF measurements in 14 healthy subjects exposed to 5-min carbon dioxide-enriched breathing air to induce cerebral vasodilatation by hypercapnia. Stiffness and viscosity as quantified by the magnitude and phase angle of the complex shear modulus, | G*| and ϕ, as well as CBF of the whole brain and 25 gray matter sub-regions were analyzed prior to, during, and after hypercapnia. In all subjects, whole-brain stiffness and viscosity increased due to hypercapnia by 3.3 ± 1.9% and 2.0 ± 1.1% which was accompanied by a CBF increase of 36 ± 15%. Post-hypercapnia, | G*| and ϕ reduced to normal values while CBF decreased by 13 ± 15% below baseline. Hypercapnia-induced viscosity changes correlated with CBF changes, whereas stiffness changes did not. The MRE-measured viscosity changes correlated with blood viscosity changes predicted by the Fåhræus-Lindqvist model and microvessel diameter changes from the literature. Our results suggest that brain viscoelastic properties are influenced by microvessel blood flow and blood viscosity: vasodilatation and increased blood viscosity due to hypercapnia result in an increase in MRE values related to viscosity.


Elasticity; Fåhræus–Lindqvist; hypercapnia; perfusion; vasodilation


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