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J Res Med Sci. 2018 Aug 23;23:75. doi: 10.4103/jrms.JRMS_606_17. eCollection 2018.

Vitamin D, the gut microbiome and inflammatory bowel disease.

Author information

1
Department of Nutrition, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.
2
Student Research Committee, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.
3
Brighton and Sussex Medical School, Division of Medical Education, Falmer, Brighton, Sussex BN1 9PH, UK.
4
Metabolic Syndrome Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.
5
Department of Modern Sciences and Technologies, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

Abstract

Vitamin D has an important role in bone metabolism but recently has been recognized as an immunoregulator, and this has led to investigations on the effect of Vitamin D supplementation in various autoimmune diseases and its anti-inflammatory effects. There is some evidence that Vitamin D can regulate gastrointestinal inflammation. In addition, previous studies have shown that Vitamin D can affect the gut microbiome. The aim of this review is to evaluate the effect of Vitamin D on inflammatory processes, especially its relation to the inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and gut microbiome. There is some evidence that Vitamin D can regulate gastrointestinal inflammation, with epidemiological studies showing that individuals with higher serum Vitamin D have a lower incidence of IBD, particularly Crohn's disease. Vitamin D changes transcription of cathelicidin and DEFB4 (defensin, beta 4) that can affect the gut microbiome. Several cell types of the immune system express Vitamin D receptor, and hence the use of Vitamin D in immune regulation has some potential. Furthermore, Vitamin D deficiency leads to dysbiosis of gut microbiome and reported to cause severe colitis. Vitamin D supplementation is low cost and available and can be a therapeutic option.

KEYWORDS:

Gut microbiome; Vitamin D; inflammatory bowel diseases

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