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J Plast Surg Hand Surg. 2018 Sep 4:1-4. doi: 10.1080/2000656X.2018.1498791. [Epub ahead of print]

Danish translation and linguistic validation of the BODY-Q Chest Module.

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a Department of Plastic Surgery , Odense University Hospital , Odense , Denmark.
b Department of Pediatrics , McMaster University , Hamilton , Canada.


The aim of this study was to translate and linguistically validate the patient-reported outcome (PRO) instrument body-q chest module, designed to measure outcomes following chest contouring surgery. The BODY-Q Chest Module includes two scales that measure appearance of chest and nipples. The translation and validation were performed according to the guidelines from the world health organization (who) and the international society for pharmacoeconomics and outcomes research (ISPOR). This approach involved two independent forward translations, a backwards translation, an expert panel meeting and cognitive debriefing interviews with patients. Each step was undertaken with the aim of achieving a conceptual and culturally equal instrument. This process led to a linguistically validated and conceptually equivalent danish version of the body-q chest module. The forward translation resulted in several discrepant translations of items that were harmonized to form the backward translation. This translation included three items with conceptual differences that required further revision. The revised version presented at the expert panel meeting had six items that needed to be revised due to conceptual discrepancies. The cognitive debriefing interviews led to revision of one item. The practices from the who and ispor guidelines were essential to developing a translation that preserved the meaning of the content of the body-q chest module from the original development study. The translation and linguistic validation methods used in our study could be used for further translations and validation of pro instruments. These new scales have since been field-tested as part of an international psychometric study.


Patient-reported outcome; bariatric surgery; body contouring surgery; cultural adaption; gynecomastia; linguistic validation; transgender; translation

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