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Folia Morphol (Warsz). 2018 Sep 4. doi: 10.5603/FM.a2018.0081. [Epub ahead of print]

An atypical biceps brachii and coracobrachialis muscles associated with multiple neurovascular aberrations: a case report with clinical significance.

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Department of Anatomy, Medical School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, M.Asias 75 street, 11527 ATHENS, Greece.


Neural and vascular variations in the axilla and upper limb area are usually paired, but coexistence of muscular aberration on top of this is uncommon. The current case report emphasizes on the unilateral coexistence of a three-headed (tricipital) biceps brachii muscle, a two-headed coracobrachialis with an accessory muscle bundle joining the superficial and deep heads of coracobrachialis muscle. On the ipsilateral side of the 72-year old male cadaver, a connecting branch originated from the musculocutaneous nerve and joined the median nerve after surpassing the accessory muscle bundle. A large diameter subscapular trunk originated from the 2nd part of the axillary artery and after giving off the 1st lateral thoracic artery trifurcated into a common stem which gave off the 2nd and 3rd lateral thoracic arteries, the circumflex scapular artery and a common branch that gave off the 4th and 5th lateral thoracic arteries and the thoracodorsal artery, as the ultimate branch. All lateral thoracic arteries were accompanied by multiple intercostobrachial nerves. Documentation of such muscular and neurovascular variants and their embryologic origin increases awareness of their potential impact on diagnosis and treatment of upper limb pathology. To the best of our knowledge, the currently reported cadaveric observations seem to constitute a unique finding.


anastomosis; biceps brachii; coracobrachialis; intercostobrachial nerve; lateral thoracic artery; median nerve; musculocutaneous nerve; variation

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