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Children (Basel). 2018 Sep 3;5(9). pii: E121. doi: 10.3390/children5090121.

Changes in Parent Psychological Flexibility after a One-Time Mindfulness-Based Intervention for Parents of Adolescents with Persistent Pain Conditions.

Author information

1
Department of Anesthesia and Pain Medicine, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON M5G 1X8, Canada. danielle.ruskin@sickkids.ca.
2
Department of Psychology, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON M5G 1X8, Canada. Lauren.campbell@sickkids.ca.
3
Department of Anesthesia and Pain Medicine and Research Institute, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON M5G 1X8, Canada. Jennifer.stinson@sickkids.ca.
4
Lawrence S Bloomberg Faculty of Nursing, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5G 1X8, Canada. Jennifer.stinson@sickkids.ca.
5
Medical Psychiatry Alliance, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON M5G 1X8, Canada. Sara.aholakohut@sickkids.ca.
6
Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5G 1X8, Canada. Sara.aholakohut@sickkids.ca.

Abstract

Parenting a child with chronic pain can be stressful and impact parent functioning in a variety of areas. Several studies have examined mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) for parents of children with different health and mental health conditions. However, no studies to date have examined MBIs for parents of children with pain conditions. This study aimed to: (1) determine the feasibility and acceptability of a one-time MBI workshop for parents (n = 34) of adolescents with painful conditions (chronic pain and inflammatory bowel disease) who were participating in a concurrent mindfulness group for adolescents with pain, and (2) examine changes in parent mindfulness and psychological flexibility following the intervention. A mixed-method design was used. In terms of feasibility and acceptability, high recruitment and retention rates were observed, and parents reported high satisfaction scores with the workshop. Changes pre to post intervention showed that dimensions of parent psychological flexibility, but not parent mindfulness, improved following participation in the workshop. Qualitative analyses based on parent responses on a questionnaire uncovered seven themes of parent "takeaways" following participation in the workshop: Mindfulness Skills, Not Alone, Psychological Flexibility, Parent⁻Child Interactions, Self-Efficacy, Optimism/Positivity/Hope, and Awareness of Values. Taken together, these findings suggest that a one-time MBI workshop offered to parents whose teen was participating in a concurrent mindfulness group for pain is a feasible and promising intervention for parents of children with pain conditions.

KEYWORDS:

acceptance; adolescence; chronic pain; irritable bowel disease; mindfulness; parents; psychological flexibility; qualitative analysis; quantitative analysis

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