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Alzheimers Dement (Amst). 2018 Apr 21;10:346-357. doi: 10.1016/j.dadm.2018.03.004. eCollection 2018.

Challenges associated with biomarker-based classification systems for Alzheimer's disease.

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Memory Unit, Department of Neurology, Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, Biomedical Research Institute Sant Pau, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.
Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Enfermedades Neurodegenerativas, CIBERNED, Madrid, Spain.
Barcelona Down Medical Center, Fundació Catalana de Síndrome de Down, Barcelona, Spain.
Department of Neurology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.
Massachusetts Alzheimer's Disease Research Center, Boston, MA, USA.
Alzheimer's Disease and Other Cognitive Disorders Unit, Department of Neurology, Hospital Clínic, Institut d'Investigació Biomèdica August Pi i Sunyer, Barcelona, Spain.
Centre for Brain Health, Department of Psychiatry, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA.



We aimed to evaluate the consistency of the A/T/N classification system.


We included healthy controls, mild cognitive impairment, and dementia patients from Alzheimer's disease Neuroimaging Initiative. We assessed subject classification consistency with different biomarker combinations and the agreement and correlation between biomarkers.


Subject classification discordance ranged from 12.2% to 44.5% in the whole sample; 17.3%-46.4% in healthy controls; 11.9%-46.5% in mild cognitive impairment, and 1%-35.7% in dementia patients. Amyloid, but not neurodegeneration biomarkers, showed good agreement both in the whole sample and in the clinical subgroups. Amyloid biomarkers were correlated in the whole sample, but not along the Alzheimer's disease continuum (as defined by a positive amyloid positron emission tomography). Neurodegeneration biomarkers were poorly correlated both in the whole sample and along the Alzheimer's disease continuum. The relationship between biomarkers was stage-dependent.


Our findings suggest that the current A/T/N classification system does not achieve the required consistency to be used in the clinical setting.


Alzheimer's disease; Biomarkers; Classification systems; Diagnosis; Magnetic resonance; Positron emission tomography

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