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Epilepsy Behav. 2018 Oct;87:69-77. doi: 10.1016/j.yebeh.2018.06.004. Epub 2018 Aug 31.

Cognitive benefits of the ketogenic diet in patients with epilepsy: A systematic overview.

Author information

1
Department of Functional Genomics, Center for Neurogenomics and Cognitive Research, VU University Amsterdam and VU Medical Center, 1081 HV Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
2
Epilepsy Center Kempenhaeghe, Sterkselseweg 65, 5591 VE Heeze, The Netherlands.
3
Danone Nutricia Research, Uppsalalaan 12, 3584 CT Utrecht, The Netherlands. Electronic address: martin.verkuijl@nutricia.com.

Abstract

The ketogenic diet (KD) has been found to be effective in reducing seizures in patients with treatment-refractory epilepsy. Less attention has been paid to additional cognitive benefits of KD. The aim of the present paper was to provide a comprehensive overview of the studies reporting effects on cognition after KD treatment in adults and children with epilepsy. To address this aim, the clinical literature on cognitive effects of KD in patients with epilepsy was reviewed using a systematic approach. We conclude that using subjective assessments of the patient's experience, cognitive improvements are frequently reported during KD treatment in the domains of alertness, attention, and global cognition. Studies that used objective neuropsychological tests confirmed benefits on alertness but found no improvement in global cognition. There are indications that these improvements are caused by both seizure reduction and direct effects of KD on cognition. The improvements appear to be unrelated to medication reduction, age when KD is started, type of KD, and sleep improvement. The findings in the present overview contribute to a better understanding of the beneficial effects of KD in patients with epilepsy.

KEYWORDS:

Cognition; Epilepsy; Ketogenic diet

PMID:
30173019
DOI:
10.1016/j.yebeh.2018.06.004
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