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Int J Dev Neurosci. 2018 Dec;71:83-93. doi: 10.1016/j.ijdevneu.2018.08.009. Epub 2018 Aug 30.

Swimming exercise before and during pregnancy: Promising preventive approach to impact offspring´s health.

Author information

1
Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Biológicas-Bioquímica, Departamento de Bioquímica, Instituto de Ciências Básicas da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil.
2
Programa de Pós-graduação em Neurociências, Instituto de Ciências Básicas, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil.
3
Departamento de Bioquímica, Instituto de Ciências Básicas da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil.
4
Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Biológicas-Bioquímica, Departamento de Bioquímica, Instituto de Ciências Básicas da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil; Departamento de Bioquímica, Instituto de Ciências Básicas da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil.
5
Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Biológicas-Bioquímica, Departamento de Bioquímica, Instituto de Ciências Básicas da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil; Departamento de Bioquímica, Instituto de Ciências Básicas da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil; Programa de Pós-graduação em Neurociências, Instituto de Ciências Básicas, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil.
6
Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Biológicas-Bioquímica, Departamento de Bioquímica, Instituto de Ciências Básicas da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil; Departamento de Bioquímica, Instituto de Ciências Básicas da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil; Programa de Pós-graduação em Fisiologia, Instituto de Ciências Básicas, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil. Electronic address: matte@ufrgs.br.

Abstract

Several environmental factors affect child development, such as the intrauterine environment during the embryonic and fetal development and early postnatal environment provided by maternal behavior. Although mechanistic effects of maternal exercise on offspring health improvement are not yet completely understood, the number of reports published demonstrating the positive influence of maternal exercise have increase. Herein, we addressed issues related to early postnatal environment provided by maternal behavior and early developmental physical landmarks, sensorimotor reflexes, and motor movements ontogeny. In brief, adult female rats underwent involuntary swimming exercise, in a moderated intensity, one week before mating and throughout pregnancy, 30 min a day, 5 days a week. Maternal exercised dams have unchanged gestational outcomes compared to sedentary dams. We found no differences concerning the frequency of pup-directed behavior displayed by dams. However, sedentary dams displayed a poorer pattern of maternal care quality during dark cycle than exercised dams. Physical landmarks and sensorimotor reflexes development of female and male littermates did not differ between maternal groups. Developmental motor parameters such as immobility, lateral head movements, head elevation, pivoting, rearing with forelimb support and crawling frequencies did not differ between groups. Pups born to exercised dams presented higher frequency of walking and rearing on the hind legs. These data suggest that female and male littermates of exercised group present a high frequency of exploratory behavior over sedentary littermates. Taken together, the present findings reinforce that maternal exercise throughout pregnancy represent a window of opportunity to improve offspring's postnatal health.

KEYWORDS:

Maternal care; Maternal exercise; Metabolic programming; motor development

PMID:
30172896
DOI:
10.1016/j.ijdevneu.2018.08.009
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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