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Biochem Pharmacol. 2018 Nov;157:51-66. doi: 10.1016/j.bcp.2018.08.037. Epub 2018 Aug 30.

Gut microbiota, cannabinoid system and neuroimmune interactions: New perspectives in multiple sclerosis.

Author information

1
Grupo de Neuroinmunología, Departamento de Neurobiología Funcional y de Sistemas, Instituto Cajal, CSIC, Madrid, Spain; Red Española de Esclerosis Múltiple (REEM), Spain.
2
Grupo de Neuroinmunología, Departamento de Neurobiología Funcional y de Sistemas, Instituto Cajal, CSIC, Madrid, Spain.
3
Grupo de Neuroinmunología, Departamento de Neurobiología Funcional y de Sistemas, Instituto Cajal, CSIC, Madrid, Spain; Red Española de Esclerosis Múltiple (REEM), Spain. Electronic address: cgjb@cajal.csic.es.

Abstract

The gut microbiota plays a fundamental role on the education and function of the host immune system. Immunological dysregulation is the cause of numerous human disorders such as autoimmune diseases and metabolic disorders frequently associated with inflammatory processes therefore is critical to explore novel mechanisms involved in maintaining the immune system homeostasis. The cannabinoid system and related bioactive lipids participate in multiple central and peripheral physiological processes that affect metabolic, gastrointestinal and neuroimmune regulatory mechanisms displaying a modulatory role and contributing to the maintenance of the organism's homeostasis. In this review, we gather the knowledge on the gut microbiota-endocannabinoids interactions and their impact on autoimmune disorders such as inflammatory bowel disease, rheumatoid arthritis and particularly, multiple sclerosis (MS) as the best example of a CNS autoimmune disorder. Furthermore, we contribute to this field with new data on changes in many elements of the cannabinoid system in a viral model of MS after gut microbiota manipulation by both antibiotics and probiotics. Finally, we highlight new therapeutic opportunities, under an integrative view, targeting the eCBS and the commensal microbiota in the context of neuroinflammation and MS.

KEYWORDS:

Autoimmunity; Cannabinoid system; Gut microbiota; Multiple sclerosis; TMEV-IDD

PMID:
30171835
DOI:
10.1016/j.bcp.2018.08.037

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