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Am J Vet Res. 1986 Jul;47(7):1426-32.

Experimentally induced coronavirus infections in calves: viral replication in the respiratory and intestinal tracts.


Eleven 3- to 50-day-old colostrum-deprived gnotobiotic calves and seven 25- to 63-day-old colostrum-deprived conventional calves were allotted into 3 groups. Each group was inoculated with a fecal isolate of bovine coronavirus via different routes: orally/intranasally OR/IN, No. 1 through 8, group 1 calves; OR, No. 9 through 13, group 2 calves; IN, No. 14 through 18, group 3 calves. Nasal swab specimens and fecal specimens were collected daily and were examined for coronavirus antigen by use of direct immunofluorescent staining (nasal epithelial cells) or by use of immune electron microscopy (fecal specimens). All but 4 calves (No. 11, 13, 17, and 18) were euthanatized on postinoculation days (PID) 3 to 7. Calves 11 and 17 became severely dehydrated and died at PID 5. Calves 13 and 18 were evaluated for nasal and fecal shedding of coronavirus through PID 14. Distribution of coronavirus antigen in the respiratory and intestinal tracts of the 14 euthanatized calves was evaluated by use of direct immunofluorescent staining. All calves developed profuse diarrhea by PID 2 to 4; however, calves did not develop clinical signs of respiratory tract disease before euthanasia or death. Inoculated calves shed coronavirus in their feces as detected by use of immune electron microscopy. Infected nasal epithelial cells were detected in all but 2 orally inoculated calves (No. 9 and 10). Route of inoculation influenced the sequence of initial detection of coronavirus antigen from fecal specimens or nasal swab specimens.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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