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J Head Trauma Rehabil. 2018 Aug 30. doi: 10.1097/HTR.0000000000000419. [Epub ahead of print]

Cognitive Communication Impairments in Children With Traumatic Brain Injury: A Scoping Review.

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1
Holland Bloorview Kids Rehabilitation Hospital, Bloorview Research Institute, Toronto, Ontario, Canada (Mss Cermak and Quinn de Launay and Drs Scratch, Reed, and Beal); Rehabilitation Sciences Institute, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada (Mss Cermak and Quinn de Launay and Drs Scratch, Reed, and Beal); Department of Speech-Language Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada (Ms Cermak and Dr Beal); Department of Pediatrics, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada (Dr Scratch); Department of Occupational Science and Occupational Therapy, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada (Dr Reed); and St Michael's Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada (Dr Bradley).

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

This scoping review synthesizes the scholarly literature on cognitive communication impairments in traumatic brain injury (TBI) sustained during childhood to identify gaps in research, and make recommendations that will further the field of cognitive communication in pediatric TBI.

METHODS:

MEDLINE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, and EMBASE were searched to identify peer-reviewed studies that examined cognitive communication impairments in children who sustained a TBI between 3 months to 18 years of age.

RESULTS:

Twenty-eight studies met inclusion criteria with 3 main categories identified in relation to cognitive communication: (1) impairments according to TBI severity, (2) impairments according to age at injury, and (3) trends in recovery according to TBI severity.

CONCLUSIONS:

The results of this scoping review suggest that (1) TBI severity is not the sole predictor of performance; other factors contribute to cognitive communication outcome and recovery; (2) developing skills at time of injury are most susceptible to impairment; and (3) standard, norm-referenced language assessments are not sensitive in detecting language impairments that are secondary to cognitive impairments found in TBI. Directions for future research and suggestions for clinical practice are proposed.

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