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Pan Afr Med J. 2017 Nov 6;28(Suppl 1):12. doi: 10.11604/pamj.supp.2017.28.1.9477. eCollection 2017.

An outbreak of cholera in western Kenya, 2015: a case control study.

Author information

1
Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program, Ministry of Health, Kenya.
2
Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Fisheries, Kenya.
3
Kisumu County Department of Health, Ministry of Health, Kenya.

Abstract

Introduction:

in February 2015, an outbreak of acute watery diarrhea was reported in two sub counties in western Kenya. Vibrio cholerae 01 serotype Ogawa was isolated from 26 cases and from water samples collected from a river mainly used by residents of the two sub-counties for domestic purposes. We carried out an investigation to determine factors associated with the outbreak.

Methods:

we conducted a frequency matched case control study in the community. We defined cases as episodes of watery diarrhea (at least three motions in 24 hours) in persons ≥ 2 years who were residents of Rongo or Ndhiwa sub-counties from January 23-February 25, 2015. Cases were systematically recruited from a cholera line list and matched to two controls (persons without diarrhea since January 23, 2015) by age category and residence. A structured questionnaire was administered to evaluate exposures in cases and controls and multivariable logistic regression done to determine independent factors associated with the outbreak.

Results:

we recruited 52 cases and 104 controls. Females constituted 61% (95/156) of all participants. Overall latrine coverage was 58% (90/156). Latrine coverage was 44% (23/52) for cases and 64% (67/104) for controls. Having no latrine at home (aOR = 10.9; 95% CI: 3.02-39.21), practicing communal hand washing in a basin (aOR = 6.5; 95% CI: 2.30-18.11) and vending of food as an occupation (aOR = 3.4; 95% CI: 1.06-10.74) were independently associated with the outbreak.

Conclusion:

poor latrine coverage and personal hygiene practices were identified as the main drivers of the outbreak. We recommended improved public health education on latrine usage and promotion of hand washing with soap and water in the community.

KEYWORDS:

Cholera; Kenya; independent factors; outbreak

PMID:
30167037
PMCID:
PMC6113693
DOI:
10.11604/pamj.supp.2017.28.1.9477
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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