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J Glob Infect Dis. 2018 Jul-Sep;10(3):133-139. doi: 10.4103/jgid.jgid_74_17.

Drug Resistance and Molecular Epidemiology of Carbapenem Resistant Gram-negative Bacilli Isolates.

Author information

Department of Microbiology, JNMC, AMU, Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh, India.
Department of Microbiology, PGIMER, Chandigarh, India.



Detection and comparison of metallo-β-lactamase (MBL) production in clinical isolates by phenotypic and genotypic measures. The objective of this study is to evaluate clinical characteristics and risk factors in patients infected with MBLs.

Materials and Methods:

Study was conducted by the Department of Microbiology, Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College from February 2014 to December 2015. Bacterial culture, identification, and antibiotic susceptibility were carried out according to standard guidelines. MBL production was detected both phenotypically (Modified Hodge test [MHT], imipenem-ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid double disk potentiation test [IMP-EDTA DDPT], IMP-EDTA combined disk synergy test [IMP-EDTA CDST]), and genotypically (blaNDM-1, blaVIM and blaIMP).


Among 116 carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative Bacilli (CRGNB), Citrobacter species 28 (24.1%) was the most common pathogen. Phenotypically, MHT, IMP-EDTA DDPT, and IMP-EDTA CDST detected MBL production in 105 (90.5%), 96 (81%), and 87 (75%) CRGNB, respectively. BlaNDM-1 genes were detected in 6 6 (56.8%) isolates, however, very few blaVIM (16, 15.2%) and blaIMP (1, 1.2%) were identified. Considering polymerase chain reaction (PCR) as the gold standard, it was observed that IMP-EDTA CDST was most specific (78.3%) while MHT was most sensitive (97.4%). Results of blaNDM-1 gene by PCR were further confirmed by sequencing (Triyat genomics, Nagpur). All the 11 representative strains were confirmed to be NDM-1 gene. Major risk factors in patients infected with MBLs were in-dwelling devices (68%), prolonged hospital stay (72%) and prior antibiotic treatment (86%). However, on tracing their outcome, it was interesting to note that mortality was relatively low 5 (4.3%).


The present study shows a rising trend of blaNDM-1 in CRGNB, an ominous sign heralding the post antibiotic era. It is essential to assess the prevalence of various MBLs so that infection control measures can be reinforced. We recommend three phenotypic tests in tandem for the detection of MBL. While phenotypic tests are easy and cost-effective to perform, quick, effective molecular diagnostic techniques can tailor treatment guidelines to optimize patient's management.


BlaIMP; blaNDM1; blaVIM; carbapenem resistant Gram-negative bacilli; phenotypic tests; polymerase chain reaction

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