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Science. 2018 Oct 19;362(6412):343-347. doi: 10.1126/science.aat4096. Epub 2018 Aug 30.

The opium poppy genome and morphinan production.

Guo L1,2,3, Winzer T4, Yang X1,5, Li Y4, Ning Z6, He Z4, Teodor R4, Lu Y7, Bowser TA8, Graham IA9, Ye K10,2,3,11.

Author information

1
MOE Key Lab for Intelligent Networks and Networks Security, School of Electronics and Information Engineering, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, 710049 China.
2
The First Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, 710061 China.
3
The School of Life Science and Technology, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, 710049 China.
4
Centre for Novel Agricultural Products, Department of Biology, University of York, York YO10 5DD, UK.
5
Computer Science Department, School of Electronics and Information Engineering, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, 710049 China.
6
The Wellcome Sanger Institute, Wellcome Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambridge CB10 1SA, UK.
7
Shanghai Ocean University, Shanghai, 201306 China.
8
Sun Pharmaceutical Industries Australia, Princes Highway, Port Fairy, VIC 3284, Australia.
9
Centre for Novel Agricultural Products, Department of Biology, University of York, York YO10 5DD, UK. ian.graham@york.ac.uk kaiye@xjtu.edu.cn.
10
MOE Key Lab for Intelligent Networks and Networks Security, School of Electronics and Information Engineering, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, 710049 China. ian.graham@york.ac.uk kaiye@xjtu.edu.cn.
11
Collaborative Innovation Center for Genetics and Development, School of Life Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

Abstract

Morphinan-based painkillers are derived from opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L.). We report a draft of the opium poppy genome, with 2.72 gigabases assembled into 11 chromosomes with contig N50 and scaffold N50 of 1.77 and 204 megabases, respectively. Synteny analysis suggests a whole-genome duplication at ~7.8 million years ago and ancient segmental or whole-genome duplication(s) that occurred before the Papaveraceae-Ranunculaceae divergence 110 million years ago. Syntenic blocks representative of phthalideisoquinoline and morphinan components of a benzylisoquinoline alkaloid cluster of 15 genes provide insight into how this cluster evolved. Paralog analysis identified P450 and oxidoreductase genes that combined to form the STORR gene fusion essential for morphinan biosynthesis in opium poppy. Thus, gene duplication, rearrangement, and fusion events have led to evolution of specialized metabolic products in opium poppy.

PMID:
30166436
DOI:
10.1126/science.aat4096

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