Send to

Choose Destination
Orphanet J Rare Dis. 2018 Aug 30;13(1):150. doi: 10.1186/s13023-018-0893-4.

A systematic review of cognitive functioning in early treated adults with phenylketonuria.

Author information

School of Psychology, University of Leeds, Leeds, LS2 9JT, UK.
School of Psychology, University of Leeds, Leeds, LS2 9JT, UK.
Biochemical Genetics, Specialist Laboratory Medicine, St James's University Hospital, Block 46, Leeds, LS9 7TF, UK.



Even though early dietary management of phenylketonuria (PKU) successfully prevents severe neurological impairments, deficits in cognitive functioning are still observed. These deficits are believed to be the result of elevated levels of phenylalanine throughout life. Research on cognitive functioning in adults with PKU (AwPKU) often focuses on domains shown to be compromised in children with PKU, such as attention and executive functions, whereas other cognitive domains have received less attention. This systematic review aimed to provide an overview of cognitive functioning across domains examined in early treated (ET) AwPKU.


A systematic search was performed in Ovid MEDLINE(R), PsycINFO, Web of Science, Cochrane, Scopus, Embase, ScienceDirect, and PubMed for observational studies on cognitive performance in ET AwPKU.


Twenty-two peer-reviewed publications, reporting on outcomes from 16 studies were reviewed. Collectively, the results most consistently showed deficits in vigilance, working memory and motor skills. Deficits in other cognitive domains were less consistently observed or were understudied. Furthermore, despite reports of several associations between cognitive performance and phenylalanine (Phe) levels throughout life the relationship remains unclear. Inconsistencies in findings across studies could be explained by the highly heterogeneous nature of study samples, resulting in large inter- and intra-variability in Phe levels, as well as the use of a variety of tests across cognitive domains, which differ in sensitivity. The long-term cognitive outcomes of early and continuous management of PKU remain unclear.


To better understand the development of cognitive deficits in ET AwPKU, future research would benefit from 1) (inter)national multicentre-studies; 2) more homogeneous study samples; 3) the inclusion of other nutritional measures that might influence cognitive functioning (e.g. Phe fluctuations, Phe:Tyrosine ratio and micronutrients such as vitamin B12); and 4) careful selection of appropriate cognitive tests.


Attention; Cognitive function; Executive function; Motor skills; Phenylketonuria; Processing speed

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for BioMed Central Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center