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Am J Hypertens. 2019 Jan 1;32(1):104-111. doi: 10.1093/ajh/hpy130.

Hypertension Prevalence Jointly Influenced by Acculturation and Gender in US Immigrant Groups.

Author information

1
Department of Community Health and Social Sciences, CUNY Graduate School of Public Health and Health Policy, New York, New York, USA.
2
NYU-CUNY Prevention Research Center, New York, USA.
3
NYU School of Medicine, Department of Population Health, New York, New York, USA.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Latinos and Asians in the United States are disproportionately burdened by hypertension, a leading risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Few studies have used multicomponent measures of acculturation to compare cardiovascular risk factors across immigrant-origin groups. Additionally, little is known about how acculturation and gender shape hypertension risk among immigrants.

METHODS:

We created an acculturation score composed of language use, nativity, and years in the United States and fit separate race/ethnicity log-binomial models examining associations with hypertension prevalence (≥130/80 mm Hg) among Latino (n = 4,267) and Asian (n = 2,142) National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2011-2016 participants aged 18+. Joint effect models tested the concept of "intersectionality" between acculturation and gender.

RESULTS:

Adjusting for age, gender, and socioeconomic position, Latinos and Asians with high acculturation were 25% and 27% more likely to have hypertension, respectively, compared with low acculturation groups. Latino and Asian American men with high levels of acculturation were 74-79% more likely to have hypertension compared with women with low acculturation (adjusted prevalence ratios (aPR) for Latinos = 1.74, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.49-2.03; aPR for Asians = 1.79, 95% CI: 1.42-2.25). The gradient of increasing hypertension with increasing acculturation was most apparent among Latino men (adjusted risk differences (aRD) = 12.0%, P < 0.001) and Asian women (aRD = 14.0%, P = 0.003) and nonsignificant among Latino women and Asian men when comparing high vs. low acculturation categories.

CONCLUSIONS:

Our results correspond with prior literature demonstrating increased morbidity among immigrants with increasing acculturation but also suggest differing patterns by race/ethnicity and gender. Future research should explore how migration processes differentially influence hypertension among men and women.

PMID:
30165394
PMCID:
PMC6284750
[Available on 2020-01-01]
DOI:
10.1093/ajh/hpy130

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