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Am J Hypertens. 2019 Jan 1;32(1):104-111. doi: 10.1093/ajh/hpy130.

Hypertension Prevalence Jointly Influenced by Acculturation and Gender in US Immigrant Groups.

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Department of Community Health and Social Sciences, CUNY Graduate School of Public Health and Health Policy, New York, New York, USA.
NYU-CUNY Prevention Research Center, New York, USA.
NYU School of Medicine, Department of Population Health, New York, New York, USA.



Latinos and Asians in the United States are disproportionately burdened by hypertension, a leading risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Few studies have used multicomponent measures of acculturation to compare cardiovascular risk factors across immigrant-origin groups. Additionally, little is known about how acculturation and gender shape hypertension risk among immigrants.


We created an acculturation score composed of language use, nativity, and years in the United States and fit separate race/ethnicity log-binomial models examining associations with hypertension prevalence (≥130/80 mm Hg) among Latino (n = 4,267) and Asian (n = 2,142) National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2011-2016 participants aged 18+. Joint effect models tested the concept of "intersectionality" between acculturation and gender.


Adjusting for age, gender, and socioeconomic position, Latinos and Asians with high acculturation were 25% and 27% more likely to have hypertension, respectively, compared with low acculturation groups. Latino and Asian American men with high levels of acculturation were 74-79% more likely to have hypertension compared with women with low acculturation (adjusted prevalence ratios (aPR) for Latinos = 1.74, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.49-2.03; aPR for Asians = 1.79, 95% CI: 1.42-2.25). The gradient of increasing hypertension with increasing acculturation was most apparent among Latino men (adjusted risk differences (aRD) = 12.0%, P < 0.001) and Asian women (aRD = 14.0%, P = 0.003) and nonsignificant among Latino women and Asian men when comparing high vs. low acculturation categories.


Our results correspond with prior literature demonstrating increased morbidity among immigrants with increasing acculturation but also suggest differing patterns by race/ethnicity and gender. Future research should explore how migration processes differentially influence hypertension among men and women.

[Available on 2020-01-01]

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