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Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2018 Aug 30:1-21. doi: 10.1123/ijsnem.2017-0424. [Epub ahead of print]

Associations of 25-Hydroxyvitamin D With the Blood Pressure Response to Maximal Exercise Among Healthy Adults.

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1 University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT, USA.
2 Hartford Hospital, Hartford, CT, USA.
3 University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA, USA.


Insufficient 25-hydroxyvitamin D [(25(OH)D)] levels are associated with high resting blood pressure (BP). However, the relationship between 25(OH)D and the peak systolic BP (SBP) response to exercise, a predictor of future hypertension, has yet to be investigated. We sought to examine the relationship among serum 25(OH)D and the peak SBP response to a graded exercise stress test (GEST) among a large sample (n=417) of healthy men (49%) and women (51%) over a broad age range (20-76 yr; mean age 44.1±0.8y). We hypothesized that individuals with clinically insufficient 25(OH)D would have a greater peak SBP response to a GEST compared to individuals with sufficient 25(OH)D levels. Fasting serum 25(OH)D, anthropometrics, resting BP, and peak exercise SBP were obtained at the baseline visit of a larger clinical trial (STOMP; NCT01140308). Mean 25(OH)D levels were 36.1±0.7ng/mL, with ~35% of individuals classified as insufficient (<30ng/mL). Average resting BP was 119±13/75±10mmHg, with 52.3% considered to have normal BP, while 25.2% had elevated BP and 22.5% had established hypertension. The peak SBP response to a GEST was similar between individuals with sufficient (+48±19mmHg) vs. insufficient (+48±18mmHg) 25(OH)D (p=1.000). One unexpected finding emerged such that individuals with sufficient 25(OH)D had higher resting SBP (120±14mmHg vs. 117±13mmHg; p=0.020) than individuals with insufficient 25(OH)D. In contrast to our hypothesis, 25(OH)D levels were not associated with the peak SBP response to a GEST. Baseline 25(OH)D levels were positively correlated with resting SBP, however, the magnitude of this effect is likely not clinically meaningful.


biomarker; cholecalciferol; hypertension; vitamin D deficiency


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