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Pediatr Pulmonol. 2018 Nov;53(11):1533-1540. doi: 10.1002/ppul.24148. Epub 2018 Aug 29.

Risk factors for chronic lung disease and asthma differ among children born extremely preterm.

Author information

1
Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina.
2
Departments of Neurology, Boston Children's Hospital, and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts.

Abstract

OBJECTIVES:

To evaluate the hypothesis that chronic lung disease of prematurity (CLD) is a risk factor for asthma in children born extremely preterm, and the hypothesis that the risk factors for CLD are similar to those for asthma.

METHODS:

A retrospective analysis was performed using data collected prospectively from 882 children born before the 28th week of gestation between 2002 and 2004 who returned for follow-up at ages 12 and 24 months and 10 years. We created time-oriented logistic regression models to compare risk factors for CLD, defined as need for supplemental oxygen at 36 weeks postmenstrual age, and parent-reported asthma at 10 years of age.

RESULTS:

CLD diagnosed during neonatal admission was associated with bronchodilator use at 12 months and 24 months (P < 0.001), but not with an asthma diagnosis at 10 years (Odds Ratio 1.3; 95% confidence interval 0.98-1.8). While risk factors for CLD include lower gestational age (OR 2.7; 1.5-4.7) and fetal growth restriction (OR 2.3; 1.4-3.7), risk factors for asthma include mother's eligibility for public insurance (Medicaid) (OR 1.8; 1.1-2.8), and higher weight gain velocity during the first year (OR 1.5; 1.02-2.2) and between the 2nd and 10th year (OR 1.7; 1.2-2.4).

CONCLUSIONS:

Among children born extremely preterm, the diagnosis of CLD and its antecedents were associated with transient preschool wheezing, but not with asthma. Post-NICU factors, such as growth velocity and socioeconomic disadvantage, appear to have stronger associations with asthma than exposures during NICU admission.

KEYWORDS:

asthma and early wheeze; bronchopulmonary dysplasia; epidemiology; extremely low birth weight infants; socioeconomic factors

PMID:
30160065
DOI:
10.1002/ppul.24148

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