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Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes. 2018 Aug 29. doi: 10.1055/a-0636-3961. [Epub ahead of print]

Quality of Life, Glycemic Control, Safety and Tolerability Associated with Liraglutide or Insulin Initiation in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes in Germany: Results from the Prospective, Non-interventional LIBERTY Study.

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Diabetes Centre Erfurt/Bad Berka, Thälmannstraße 25, 99085, Erfurt, Germany.
Institut für Pharmakoökonomie und Arzneimittellogistik (IPAM), Alter Holzhafen 19, 23966, Wismar, Germany.
Ingress Health, Hofplein 20, 3032 AC Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
Novo Nordisk Pharma GmbH, Brucknerstraße 1, 55127, Mainz, Germany.



To assess quality of life, glycemic control, and safety/tolerability associated with liraglutide versus insulin initiation in patients with type 2 diabetes in Germany.


Liraglutide/insulin-naïve adults with type 2 diabetes and inadequate glycemic control despite using oral antidiabetic medication were assigned to liraglutide (≤1.8 mg daily; n=878) or any insulin (n=382) according to the treating physician's decision and followed for 52 weeks. The primary objective was to evaluate Audit of Diabetes-Dependent Quality of Life (ADDQoL) scores.


At baseline, the liraglutide group was younger and had shorter type 2 diabetes duration, lower glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), higher body mass index, and a lower prevalence of certain diabetes-related complications than the insulin group (all p<0.05). ADDQoL average weighted impact scores improved numerically in both groups from baseline to 52 weeks (mean difference [95% confidence interval], liraglutide vs. insulin: 0.159 [-0.023;0.340]; not significant). Changes in general wellbeing and five ADDQoL domains significantly favored liraglutide (remaining 14 domains, not significant). HbA1c reductions were greater with insulin than liraglutide (-2.0% vs. -1.2%; p<0.01); however, mean HbA1c after 52 weeks was 7.2% in both groups. Compared with insulin, liraglutide significantly decreased body mass index (-1.54 kg/m2 vs. +0.27 kg/m2; p<0.001), systolic blood pressure (-5.03 mmHg vs. -1.03 mmHg; p<0.01) and non-severe hypoglycemia (0.85% vs. 4.55% at 52 weeks; p<0.01). Adverse drug reactions were reported for<3% of patients in both groups.


Liraglutide improved certain ADDQoL components and reduced body mass index, systolic blood pressure, and non-severe hypoglycemia versus insulin. Both treatments improved glycemic control.


Conflict of interest statement

RL has participated in advisory committees for and received speaker honoraria from AstraZeneca, Boehringer Ingelheim, Lilly Deutschland, Merck Sharp & Dohme, and Novo Nordisk; and received speaker honoraria from Bayer and Sanofi-Aventis. SM and MH have worked as consultants for IPAM e.V. and IngressHealth, institutions that have received financial support from Novo Nordisk. TW has received honoraria from several pharmaceutical companies, including GlaxoSmithKline, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Bayer, Novo Nordisk, and Sanofi-Aventis. JK and SK are employees of and shareholders in Novo Nordisk.

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