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Interdiscip Toxicol. 2017 Dec;10(4):129-141. doi: 10.1515/intox-2017-0019. Epub 2018 Mar 1.

Oleuropein and rutin protect against 6-OHDA-induced neurotoxicity in PC12 cells through modulation of mitochondrial function and unfolded protein response.

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Department of Medical Pharmacology, Cellular Stress Response and Signal Transduction Research Laboratory, Gazi University, Faculty of Medicine, Ankara, Turkey.
Department of Medical Biology, Erzincan University, Faculty of Medicine, Erzincan, Turkey.
Department of Biology, Ankara University, Faculty of Science, Ankara, Turkey.
Department of Hematology, Gazi University, Faculty of Medicine, Ankara, Turkey.


Parkinson's disease (PD) is a highly prevalent neurodegenerative disorder, often associated with oxidative stress-induced transcriptional changes in dopaminergic neurons. Phenolic antioxidants, oleuropein (OLE) and rutin (RUT) have attracted a great interest due to their potential to counteract oxidative protein aggregation and toxicity. This study aimed at examining the effects of OLE and RUT against 6-OHDA-induced stress response in rat pheochromocytoma cells. When differentiated PC12 cells were exposed to oxidative stress composer 6-OHDA (100 μM, 8 h), a decreased mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) was observed along with a significant loss of cell viability and apoptotic nuclear changes. Exposure to 6-OHDA resulted in unfolded protein response (UPR) in differentiated PC12 cells as evidenced by an increased level of endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-localized transmembrane signal transducer IRE1α, adaptive response proteins ATF-4 and proapoptotic transcription factor CHOP. OLE or RUT pretreatment (24 h) at low doses (1-50 μM) protected the differentiated PC12 cells from 6-OHDA-induced cytotoxicity as assessed by increased viability, improved ΔΨm and inhibited apoptosis, whereas relatively high doses of OLE or RUT (>50 μM) inhibited cell growth and proliferation, indicating a typical hormetic effect. In hormetic doses, OLE and RUT up-regulated 6-OHDA-induced increase in IRE1α, ATF-4 and inhibited CHOP, PERK, BIP and PDI. 6-OHDA-activated XBP1 splicing was also inhibited by OLE or RUT. The presented results suggest that neuroprotection against 6-OHDA-induced oxidative toxicity may be attributable to neurohormetic effects of OLE or RUT at low doses through regulating mitochondrial functions, controlling persistent protein misfolding, activating and/or amplificating the adaptive response-related signaling pathways, leading to UPR prosurvival output.


endoplasmic reticulum; mitochondria; neurotoxicity; oleuropein; rutin

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