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Prev Med. 2018 Oct;115:145-155. doi: 10.1016/j.ypmed.2018.08.029. Epub 2018 Aug 23.

Impact of community pharmacist-provided preventive services on clinical, utilization, and economic outcomes: An umbrella review.

Author information

1
Department of Pharmacy and Therapeutics, School of Pharmacy, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA. Electronic address: als440@pitt.edu.
2
Department of Pharmacy and Therapeutics, School of Pharmacy, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA. Electronic address: tvn6@pitt.edu.
3
Department of Pharmacy and Therapeutics, School of Pharmacy, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA. Electronic address: inh3@pitt.edu.
4
UPMC Center for High-Value Health Care, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA, USA. Electronic address: swarte@upmc.edu.
5
Health Sciences Library System, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA. Electronic address: kleinf@pitt.edu.
6
UPMC Center for High-Value Health Care, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA, USA. Electronic address: shrankwh@upmc.edu.
7
UPMC Center for High-Value Health Care, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA, USA. Electronic address: parekhn@upmc.edu.

Abstract

Preventable diseases and late diagnosis of disease impose great clinical and economic burden for health care systems, especially in the current juncture of rising medical expenditures. Under these circumstances, community pharmacies have been identified as accessible venues to receive preventive services. This umbrella review aims to examine existing evidence on the impact of community pharmacist-provided preventive services on clinical, utilization, and economic outcomes in the United States (US). We included systematic reviews, narrative reviews and meta-analyses published in English between January 2007 and October 2017. Of 2742 references identified by our search strategy, a total of 13 research syntheses met our inclusion criteria. Included reviews showed that community pharmacists are effective at increasing immunization rates, supporting smoking cessation, managing hormonal contraception therapies, and identifying patients at high risk for certain diseases. Moreover, evidence suggests that community pharmacies are especially well-positioned for the provision of preventive services due to their convenient location and extended hours of operation. There is general agreement on the positive impact of community pharmacists in increasing access to preventive health, particularly among patients who otherwise would not be reached by other healthcare providers. The provision of preventive services at US community pharmacies is feasible and effective, and has potential for improving patient outcomes and health system efficiency. However, high-quality evidence is still lacking. As the healthcare landscape shifts towards a value-based framework, it will be important to conduct robust studies that further evaluate the impact of community pharmacist-provided preventive services on utilization and economic outcomes.

KEYWORDS:

Community pharmacy services; Direct-to-consumer screening and testing; Hormonal oral contraceptives; Immunization; Pharmacies; Preventive health services; Secondary prevention; Smoking cessation

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