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Clin Perinatol. 2018 Sep;45(3):501-527. doi: 10.1016/j.clp.2018.05.009.

Long-Term Functioning and Participation Across the Life Course for Preterm Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Graduates.

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Department of Psychology, The Center for Early Childhood Research, University of Chicago, 5848 S. University Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637, USA.
Department of Pediatrics, Section of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, Kennedy Research Center on Intellectual and Neurodevelopmental Disabilities, University of Chicago Comer Children's Hospital, Woodlawn Social Services Center, 950 East 61st Street, Chicago, IL 60637, USA. Electronic address:


To understand the trajectories of risk and resilience in the vulnerable preterm and neonatal brain, clinicians must go beyond survival and critically examine on a population basis the functional outcomes of children, adolescents, and adults across their life course. Evaluations must go well beyond Bayley assessments and counts of neonatal morbidities, such as bronchopulmonary dysplasia, retinopathy of prematurity, sonographic brain injury, sepsis, and necrotizing enterocolitis. Proactively providing support to families and developmental and educational supports to children can optimize academic functioning and participation in adult learning, physical and behavioral health activities, community living, relationships, and employment.


Academic performance; Functional outcomes; Learning disorders; Lifecourse health development; NICU graduates; Neurodevelopmental disorders; Survival rates

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