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J Ethnopharmacol. 2018 Dec 5;227:41-55. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2018.08.024. Epub 2018 Aug 23.

The phytochemistry, pharmacokinetics, pharmacology and toxicity of Euphorbia semen.

Author information

1
Department of Toxicology, School of Public Health, Peking University, No. 38 Xueyuan Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100191, China. Electronic address: zhuan17@pku.edu.cn.
2
Department of Toxicology, School of Public Health, Peking University, No. 38 Xueyuan Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100191, China. Electronic address: zhang_tao@pku.edu.cn.
3
Department of Toxicology, School of Public Health, Peking University, No. 38 Xueyuan Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100191, China; Key Laboratory of State Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine for Compatibility Toxicology, Beijing 100191, China; Beijing Key Laboratory of Toxicological Research and Risk Assessment for Food Safety, Beijing 100191, China. Electronic address: wangqi@bjmu.edu.cn.

Abstract

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE:

Euphorbia semen, the dried and ripe seed of Euphorbia lathyris Linnaeus, is widely cultivated for traditional medicine use. This semen is used to expel water, help with phlegm retention, promote blood circulation, remove blood stasis, cure tinea and scabies, and treat amenorrhea, snakebites, terminal schistosomiasis, anuria and constipation.

AIM OF THE REVIEW:

This review provides updated, comprehensive and categorized information on the local and traditional uses, phytochemistry, pharmacokinetics, pharmacological activities and toxicity of Euphorbia semen. Future research to deepen the recognition and utilization of Euphorbia semen is proposed.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

This article conducted a literature review on information about Euphorbia semen in multiple Internet databases, including PubMed, Web of Science, Wiley, Science Direct, Elsevier, ACS publications, SciFinder, Google Scholar and China National Knowledge Internet, until March of 2018. In this manuscript, a number of books, PhD and MSc dissertations, and Chinese Pharmacopeia were also used as references.

RESULTS:

Approximately 240 chemical constituents have been isolated and identified from Euphorbia semen, namely, diterpenoids, coumarins, flavonoids, fatty acids, amino acids, and steroids. Pharmacokinetic study focused on investigating absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME). The chemical constituents have extensive pharmacological effects, such as diuresis and anti-hyperuricaemia, anti-inflammation, antiviral, anticancer, antioxidant, antipigmentation, anti-platelet aggregation and anti-allergic activities, as well as hepatoprotection and neuroprotection. The toxicity of Euphorbia semen, including acute toxicity, target organ irritation and cocareinogenic effects, have been reported, and the detoxification methods are reviewed.

CONCLUSION:

Euphorbia semen has extensive pharmacological activity and excellent clinical value, along with intense intestinal irritation. Although plenty of chemical constituents have been isolated and identified, the exact pharmacological and toxicological mechanisms still need to be explored.

KEYWORDS:

16-hydroxy-ingenol (PubChem CID: 119057278); Botany; Daphnetin (PubChem CID: 5280569); Esculetin (PubChem CID: 5281416); Esculin (PubChem CID: 5281417); Euphorbia Factor L2 (PubChem CID: 101071473); Euphorbia Factor L3 (PubChem CID: 92043360); Euphorbia Factor L4 (PubChem CID: 124511085); Euphorbia Factor L5 (PubChem CID: 56841025); Euphorbia Factor L6 (PubChem CID: 6442562); Euphorbia Factor L7a (PubChem CID: 131676046); Euphorbia Factor L8 (PubChem CID: 131876111); Euphorbia factor L1 (PubChem CID: 101071470); Euphorbia semen; Glycerol-dioleates (PubChem CID: 33120); Glycerol-monooleate (PubChem CID: 33022); Glycerol-trioleate (PubChem CID: 5497163); Ingenol (PubChem CID: 442042); Pharmacokinetic; Pharmacology; Phytochemistry; Toxicity; β-sitosterol (PubChem CID: 222284)

PMID:
30144497
DOI:
10.1016/j.jep.2018.08.024
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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