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Int Immunopharmacol. 2018 Oct;63:299-310. doi: 10.1016/j.intimp.2018.08.004. Epub 2018 Aug 22.

Activation of Nrf2 signaling by salvianolic acid C attenuates NF‑κB mediated inflammatory response both in vivo and in vitro.

Author information

1
State Key Laboratory of Bioactive Substances and Functions of Natural Medicines, Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China; Beijing Key Laboratory of Drug Target Identification and Drug Screening, Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China.
2
State Key Laboratory of Bioactive Substances and Functions of Natural Medicines, Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China; Beijing Key Laboratory of Drug Target Identification and Drug Screening, Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China. Electronic address: dugh@imm.ac.cn.

Abstract

Neurodegenerative diseases are closely related to neuroinflammation. Drugs targeting inflammation have been proved to be effective in many animal models. Salvianolic acid C (SalC) is a compound isolated from Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge, a plant with reported effects of inhibiting inflammation. However, the anti-inflammation effects and biological mechanisms of SalC on LPS-stimulated neuroinflammation remain unknown. The aim of this paper was to study its protective effects and its anti-inflammation mechanisms. LPS was used both in vivo and in vitro to induce neuroinflammation in SD rats and microglia cells. MTT assay was carried out to detect cell viability. The levels of TNF‑α, IL‑1β, IL‑6, IL‑10 and PGE2 were detected by ELISA method. The expressions of p‑AMPK, p‑NF‑κB p65, p‑IκBα, Nrf2, HO‑1 and NQO1 proteins were examined by Western blot analysis. The nuclear translocation of NF‑κB p65 was studied by immunofluorescence assay. The specific Nrf2 siRNA was used to clarify the interaction between Nrf2 and NF‑κB p65. The AMPK inhibitor Compound C was used study the upstream protein of Nrf2. Results showed that LPS induced the overexpression of inflammatory cytokines and mediated the phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of NF‑κB p65 in rat brains and microglia cells. SalC reversed the inflammatory response induced by LPS and inhibited the NF‑κB activation. SalC also upregulated the expression of p‑AMPK, Nrf2, HO‑1 and NQO1. But the anti-inflammation and NF‑κB inhibition effects of SalC were attenuated by transfection with specific Nrf2 siRNA or interference with the potent AMPK inhibitor Compound C. In conclusion, SalC inhibited LPS-induced inflammatory response and NF‑κB activation through the activation of AMPK/Nrf2 signaling both in vivo and in vitro.

KEYWORDS:

AMPK; LPS; NF‑κB; Neuroinflammation; Nrf2; Salvianolic acid C

PMID:
30142530
DOI:
10.1016/j.intimp.2018.08.004
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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