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J Sci Food Agric. 2019 Feb;99(3):975-985. doi: 10.1002/jsfa.9327. Epub 2018 Nov 10.

Impact of agronomic practices on grape aroma composition: a review.

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UE 999 Pech-Rouge, University of Montpellier, CIRAD, INRA, Montpellier SupAgro, Gruissan, France.
AGAP, University of Montpellier, CIRAD, INRA, Montpellier SupAgro, Montpellier Cedex 02, France.
Facultad de Agronomía, Cátedra de Fruticultura, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina.
SPO, University of Montpellier, CIRAD, INRA, Montpellier SupAgro, Montpellier Cedex 02, France.
Institut Français de la Vigne et du Vin, Gruissan, France.


Aroma compounds are secondary metabolites that play a key role in grape quality for enological purposes. Terpenes, C13 -norisoprenoids, phenols, and non-terpenic alcohols are the most important aroma compounds in grapes and they can be found as free volatiles or glycoconjugated (bound) molecules. The non-volatile glycosylated group is the largest, and it is present in all varieties of Vitis vinifera (L.), the most widely used species for wine production. These aroma precursors represent the reserve of aroma molecules that can be released during winemaking. Their relative and absolute concentrations at fruit ripening determine the organoleptic value of the final product. A large range of biotic and abiotic factors can influence their biosynthesis in several ways. Agronomic practices such as irrigation, training systems, leaf removal, and bunch thinning can have an effect at plant level. The spraying of stimulatory compounds on fruit at different developmental stages has also been shown to modify metabolic pathways at fruit level with some impact on the aroma composition of the grapevine fruit. Viticulturists could act to promote aroma precursors to improve the aromatic profile of grapes and the wine ultimately produced. However, agronomic practices do not always have uniform results. The metabolic and physiological changes resulting from agronomic practices are unknown because there has not been sufficient research to date. This review presents the state of the art regarding the influences of vineyard agronomic management on the biosynthesis of grape aroma compounds. Although literature regarding the topic is abundant there are still many unknown biological mechanisms involved and/or that have been insufficiently studied. The aim of this work is therefore to find the gaps in scientific literature so that future investigations can focus on them.


Vitis vinifera; agronomic practices; aroma compounds; fruit quality; grapevine

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