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Mycotoxin Res. 2019 Feb;35(1):17-25. doi: 10.1007/s12550-018-0327-0. Epub 2018 Aug 22.

Frequency and levels of regulated and emerging mycotoxins in silage in Poland.

Author information

1
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, National Veterinary Research Institute, Partyzantow Avenue 57, 24-100, Pulawy, Poland. lukasz.panasiuk@piwet.pulawy.pl.
2
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, National Veterinary Research Institute, Partyzantow Avenue 57, 24-100, Pulawy, Poland.
3
Center for Analytical Chemistry, Department of Agrobiotechnology (IFA-Tulln), University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna, Konrad Lorenz Str. 20, 3430, Tulln, Austria.
4
Department of Epidemiology and Risk Assessment, National Veterinary Research Institute, Partyzantow Avenue 57, 24-100, Pulawy, Poland.

Abstract

In this study, 120 silage samples collected in 2015 from farms in Poland were analysed by a multimycotoxin method based on liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. The study included toxins which are regulated within the European Union (aflatoxins, deoxynivalenol, fumonisins, T-2/HT-2 toxins, ochratoxin A and zearalenone) and non-regulated mycotoxins (enniatins, beauvericin, 8-ketotrichothecenes, sterigmatocystin, zearalenone derivatives). All silage samples were positive for at least one mycotoxin, and 61% of samples contained five or more mycotoxins simultaneously. The most frequently detected toxins were deoxynivalenol, nivalenol, zearalenone, enniatins and beauvericin, although the levels of these toxins were relatively low. The mean concentration of deoxynivalenol and zearalenon was 406 and 80.6 μg/kg, respectively, and two toxins were positive-correlated. This is the first study that provides information about emerging mycotoxins contaminating silage in Poland.

KEYWORDS:

Co-occurrence; Correlation; LC-MS/MS; Mycotoxins; Silage

PMID:
30136099
PMCID:
PMC6331501
DOI:
10.1007/s12550-018-0327-0
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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