Format

Send to

Choose Destination
Sports Health. 2018 Nov/Dec;10(6):538-546. doi: 10.1177/1941738118795425. Epub 2018 Aug 21.

Risk Factors Associated With Low Back Pain in Golfers: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

Author information

1
Department of Physical Therapy, Crean College of Health and Behavioral Sciences, Chapman University, Irvine, California.
2
Los Angeles Angels, Scottsdale, Arizona.
3
Independent Researcher, Santa Ana, California.
4
Department of Physical Therapy, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, Las Vegas, Nevada.

Abstract

CONTEXT::

Low back pain is common in golfers. The risk factors for golf-related low back pain are unclear but may include individual demographic, anthropometric, and practice factors as well as movement characteristics of the golf swing.

OBJECTIVE::

The aims of this systematic review were to summarize and synthesize evidence for factors associated with low back pain in recreational and professional golfers.

DATA SOURCES::

A systematic literature search was conducted using the PubMed, CINAHL, and SPORTDiscus electronic databases through September 2017.

STUDY SELECTION::

Studies were included if they quantified demographic, anthropometric, biomechanical, or practice variables in individuals with and without golf-related low back pain.

STUDY DESIGN::

Systematic review and meta-analysis.

LEVEL OF EVIDENCE::

Level 3.

DATA EXTRACTION::

Studies were independently reviewed for inclusion by 2 authors, and the following data were extracted: characterization of low back pain, participant demographics, anthropometrics, biomechanics, strength/flexibility, and practice characteristics. The methodological quality of studies was appraised by 3 authors using a previously published checklist. Where possible, individual and pooled effect sizes of select variables of interest were calculated for differences between golfers with and without pain.

RESULTS::

The search retrieved 73 articles, 19 of which met the inclusion criteria (12 case-control studies, 5 cross-sectional studies, and 2 prospective longitudinal studies). Methodological quality scores ranged from 12.5% to 100.0%. Pooled analyses demonstrated a significant association between increased age and body mass and golf-related low back pain in cross-sectional/case-control studies. Prospective data indicated that previous history of back pain predicts future episodes of pain.

CONCLUSION::

Individual demographic and anthropometric characteristics may be associated with low back pain, but this does not support a relationship between swing characteristics and the development of golf-related pain. Additional high-quality prospective studies are needed to clarify risk factors for back pain in golfers.

KEYWORDS:

biomechanics; golf; low back pain; risk factors; swing

PMID:
30130164
PMCID:
PMC6204638
DOI:
10.1177/1941738118795425
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Atypon Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center