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Nat Commun. 2018 Aug 20;9(1):3336. doi: 10.1038/s41467-018-05649-9.

Ancient DNA from Chalcolithic Israel reveals the role of population mixture in cultural transformation.

Author information

1
Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, 02138, USA. eadaoinharney@gmail.com.
2
Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, 02115, USA. eadaoinharney@gmail.com.
3
The Max Planck-Harvard Research Center for the Archaeoscience of the Ancient Mediterranean, Cambridge, MA, 02138, USA. eadaoinharney@gmail.com.
4
Department of Anatomy and Anthropology, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, 6997801, Israel. mayhila@post.tau.ac.il.
5
Shmunis Family Anthropology Institute, Dan David Center for Human Evolution and Biohistory Research, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Steinhardt Natural History Museum, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, 6997801, Israel. mayhila@post.tau.ac.il.
6
The Institute for Galilean Archaeology, Kinneret Academic College, Kinneret, 15132, Israel.
7
Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, 02115, USA.
8
Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, 02142, MA, USA.
9
Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Boston, MA, 02115, USA.
10
The Max Planck-Harvard Research Center for the Archaeoscience of the Ancient Mediterranean, Cambridge, MA, 02138, USA.
11
Shmunis Family Anthropology Institute, Dan David Center for Human Evolution and Biohistory Research, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Steinhardt Natural History Museum, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, 6997801, Israel.
12
The Maurice and Gabriela Goldschleger School of Dental Medicine, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, 6997801, Israel.
13
Department of Anatomy and Anthropology, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, 6997801, Israel.

Abstract

The material culture of the Late Chalcolithic period in the southern Levant (4500-3900/3800 BCE) is qualitatively distinct from previous and subsequent periods. Here, to test the hypothesis that the advent and decline of this culture was influenced by movements of people, we generated genome-wide ancient DNA from 22 individuals from Peqi'in Cave, Israel. These individuals were part of a homogeneous population that can be modeled as deriving ~57% of its ancestry from groups related to those of the local Levant Neolithic, ~17% from groups related to those of the Iran Chalcolithic, and ~26% from groups related to those of the Anatolian Neolithic. The Peqi'in population also appears to have contributed differently to later Bronze Age groups, one of which we show cannot plausibly have descended from the same population as that of Peqi'in Cave. These results provide an example of how population movements propelled cultural changes in the deep past.

PMID:
30127404
PMCID:
PMC6102297
DOI:
10.1038/s41467-018-05649-9
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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