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Lancet. 2018 Sep 15;392(10151):951-970. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(18)31204-2. Epub 2018 Aug 17.

Leishmaniasis.

Author information

1
Faculty of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London, UK; Department of Public Health, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Antwerp, Belgium; Médecins Sans Frontières, Delhi, India.
2
Faculty of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London, UK.
3
Department of Public Health, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Antwerp, Belgium. Electronic address: mboelaert@itg.be.

Abstract

Leishmaniasis is a poverty-related disease with two main clinical forms: visceral leishmaniasis and cutaneous leishmaniasis. An estimated 0·7-1 million new cases of leishmaniasis per year are reported from nearly 100 endemic countries. The number of reported visceral leishmaniasis cases has decreased substantially in the past decade as a result of better access to diagnosis and treatment and more intense vector control within an elimination initiative in Asia, although natural cycles in transmission intensity might play a role. In east Africa however, the case numbers of this fatal disease continue to be sustained. Increased conflict in endemic areas of cutaneous leishmaniasis and forced displacement has resulted in a surge in these endemic areas as well as clinics across the world. WHO lists leishmaniasis as one of the neglected tropical diseases for which the development of new treatments is a priority. Major evidence gaps remain, and new tools are needed before leishmaniasis can be definitively controlled.

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PMID:
30126638
DOI:
10.1016/S0140-6736(18)31204-2
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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