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Curr Rheumatol Rep. 2018 Aug 20;20(10):62. doi: 10.1007/s11926-018-0773-x.

Role of Infectious Diseases in the Antiphospholipid Syndrome (Including Its Catastrophic Variant).

Author information

1
Systemic Autoimmune Diseases Research Unit, UMAE CMN Manuel Avila Camacho, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, Puebla, Mexico.
2
Immunology and Rheumatology, Medical School, Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, Puebla, Mexico.
3
Department of Autoimmune Diseases, Hospital Clinic, Villarroel, 170, 08036, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain. rcervera@clinic.cat.

Abstract

PURPOSE OF REVIEW:

The antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is characterized by the development of thrombotic events and pregnancy morbidity in the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL). An infectious etiology for this syndrome has been postulated. The present review is aimed to summarize recent evidence about the role of infections and vaccines in the pathogenesis of the APS (including its catastrophic variant).

RECENT FINDINGS:

There is an increased risk of developing aPL in various infections, particularly in viral infections. The most frequent infection related to aPL has been hepatitis C virus. These antibodies may be associated with thromboembolic events, including catastrophic APS. There is a link between vaccinations, such as the tetanus toxoid and aPL, due to molecular mimicry between the two molecules. Accumulated evidence supports that the presence of aPL is associated with a variety of infections, including viruses, bacteria, fungi, and parasites, and the main mechanism to explain this correlation is molecular mimicry. Moreover, a link between vaccinations, such as the tetanus toxoid, and APS has also been described.

KEYWORDS:

Antiphospholipid syndrome; Infections; Thrombosis; Vaccines

PMID:
30123926
DOI:
10.1007/s11926-018-0773-x

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