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Cell Host Microbe. 2018 Sep 12;24(3):447-460.e11. doi: 10.1016/j.chom.2018.07.011. Epub 2018 Aug 16.

High-Definition Analysis of Host Protein Stability during Human Cytomegalovirus Infection Reveals Antiviral Factors and Viral Evasion Mechanisms.

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Cambridge Institute for Medical Research, University of Cambridge, Hills Road, Cambridge CB2 0XY, UK.
Cardiff University School of Medicine, Division of Infection and Immunity, Henry Wellcome Building, Heath Park, Cardiff CF14 4XN, UK.
Regional Centre for Applied Molecular Oncology (RECAMO), Masaryk Memorial Cancer Institute, Zluty Kopec 7, 65653 Brno, Czech Republic.
Department of Cell Biology, Harvard Medical School, 240 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, USA.
MRC-University of Glasgow Centre for Virus Research, Sir Michael Stoker Building, 464 Bearsden Road, Glasgow G61 1QH, UK.
Cambridge Institute for Medical Research, University of Cambridge, Hills Road, Cambridge CB2 0XY, UK. Electronic address:


Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is an important pathogen with multiple immune evasion strategies, including virally facilitated degradation of host antiviral restriction factors. Here, we describe a multiplexed approach to discover proteins with innate immune function on the basis of active degradation by the proteasome or lysosome during early-phase HCMV infection. Using three orthogonal proteomic/transcriptomic screens to quantify protein degradation, with high confidence we identified 35 proteins enriched in antiviral restriction factors. A final screen employed a comprehensive panel of viral mutants to predict viral genes that target >250 human proteins. This approach revealed that helicase-like transcription factor (HLTF), a DNA helicase important in DNA repair, potently inhibits early viral gene expression but is rapidly degraded during infection. The functionally unknown HCMV protein UL145 facilitates HLTF degradation by recruiting the Cullin4 E3 ligase complex. Our approach and data will enable further identifications of innate pathways targeted by HCMV and other viruses.


host-pathogen interaction; immune evasion; innate immunity; lysosome; proteasome; protein degradation; pulsed SILAC; quantitative proteomics; restriction factor; tandem mass tag

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