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Women Birth. 2018 Aug 14. pii: S1871-5192(18)30260-9. doi: 10.1016/j.wombi.2018.07.024. [Epub ahead of print]

Alcohol consumption during pregnancy and risk of small-for-gestational-age newborn.

Author information

1
Department of Health Sciences of University of Jaen, Spain; CIBER of Epidemiology and Public Health, CIBERESP, Spain. Electronic address: juanmimartinezg@hotmail.com.
2
CIBER of Epidemiology and Public Health, CIBERESP, Spain; Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, University of Granada, Spain; Biohealth Research Institute Granada, IBS-Granada, Spain.
3
Department of Health Sciences of University of Jaen, Spain; CIBER of Epidemiology and Public Health, CIBERESP, Spain.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Contradictory results have been published on the association of alcohol consumption during pregnancy with perinatal outcomes, including the risk of small for gestational age newborn.

AIM:

To determine whether alcohol consumption during pregnancy is associated with the risk of small for gestational age newborn.

METHOD:

A case-control study with 518 pairs of pregnant Spanish women in five hospitals was conducted; cases were women with small for gestational age newborn and age-matched (±2years) controls were women with non-small for gestational age newborn. Data were gathered on demographic characteristics, socioeconomic status, toxic habits, and diet. Alcohol intake was recorded with a self-administered 137 food frequency questionnaire and with a personal interview, Alcohol intake was categorized -. Agreement in alcohol intake results between direct interview and frequency food questionnaire was evaluated with the Kappa index. Crude and adjusted odds ratios and their 95% confidence intervals were estimated by conditional logistic regression.

FINDINGS:

Poor agreement was observed between food frequency questionnaire and personal interview results for both cases (κ=0.23) and controls (κ=0.14). A food frequency questionnaire-recorded intake of less than 4g/day was associated with a significantly lower odds ratios for small for gestational age newborn (odds ratios=0.62, 95% confidence intervals, 0.43-0.88), whereas an interview-recorded intake of <4g/day was not related to small for gestational age newborn (odds ratios=0.86, 95% confidence intervals, 0.49-1.54).

CONCLUSIONS:

A very moderate alcohol intake during pregnancy may have a negative association with the risk of having a small for gestational age newborn.

KEYWORDS:

Alcohol intake; Lifestyle; Pregnancy; SGA; Self-report

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