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Plant Cell. 2018 Oct;30(10):2330-2351. doi: 10.1105/tpc.17.00983. Epub 2018 Aug 16.

A Spatiotemporal DNA Endoploidy Map of the Arabidopsis Root Reveals Roles for the Endocycle in Root Development and Stress Adaptation.

Author information

1
Department of Plant Biotechnology and Bioinformatics, Ghent University, B-9052 Ghent, Belgium.
2
VIB Center for Plant Systems Biology, B-9052 Ghent, Belgium.
3
Bioinformatics Institute Ghent, Ghent University, B-9052 Ghent, Belgium.
4
Center for Plant Integrative Biology, University of Nottingham, Sutton Bonington LE12 5RD, United Kingdom.
5
Institute of Plant Stress Biology, State Key Laboratory of Cotton Biology, Department of Biology, Henan University, 475004 Kaifeng, China.
6
VIB Flow Core, B-9052 Ghent, Belgium.
7
School of Plant Sciences, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721.
8
Institut Jean-Pierre Bourgin, INRA, AgroParisTech, CNRS, Université Paris-Saclay, 78000 Versailles, France.
9
Department of Comparative Development and Genetics, Max Planck Institute for Plant Breeding Research, D-50829 Cologne, Germany.
10
VIB Bio Imaging Core, B-9052 Ghent, Belgium.
11
Department of Biological Sciences, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803.
12
Key Laboratory of Plant Stress Biology, State Key Laboratory of Cotton Biology, School of Life Sciences, Henan University, Kaifeng 475004, China.
13
Department of Plant Biotechnology and Bioinformatics, Ghent University, B-9052 Ghent, Belgium steven.maere@ugent.vib.be lieven.deveylder@ugent.vib.be.

Abstract

Somatic polyploidy caused by endoreplication is observed in arthropods, molluscs, and vertebrates but is especially prominent in higher plants, where it has been postulated to be essential for cell growth and fate maintenance. However, a comprehensive understanding of the physiological significance of plant endopolyploidy has remained elusive. Here, we modeled and experimentally verified a high-resolution DNA endoploidy map of the developing Arabidopsis thaliana root, revealing a remarkable spatiotemporal control of DNA endoploidy levels across tissues. Fitting of a simplified model to publicly available data sets profiling root gene expression under various environmental stress conditions suggested that this root endoploidy patterning may be stress-responsive. Furthermore, cellular and transcriptomic analyses revealed that inhibition of endoreplication onset alters the nuclear-to-cellular volume ratio and the expression of cell wall-modifying genes, in correlation with the appearance of cell structural changes. Our data indicate that endopolyploidy might serve to coordinate cell expansion with structural stability and that spatiotemporal endoreplication pattern changes may buffer for stress conditions, which may explain the widespread occurrence of the endocycle in plant species growing in extreme or variable environments.

PMID:
30115738
PMCID:
PMC6241279
[Available on 2019-10-01]
DOI:
10.1105/tpc.17.00983

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