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Int J Low Extrem Wounds. 2018 Sep;17(3):169-175. doi: 10.1177/1534734618791853. Epub 2018 Aug 16.

Prevalence of Foot Complications in People With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Community-Based Survey in Rural Udupi.

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1 Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Udupi, Karnataka, India.
2 Taluka Health Office, Udupi, Karnataka, India.
3 District Health and Family Welfare Office, Udupi, Karnataka, India.
4 World Diabetes Foundation, Gentofte, Denmark.
5 MS Ramaiah Medical College, Bangalore, Karnataka, India.
6 Tameside Hospital, NHS Foundation Trust, Ashton-under-Lyne, England, UK.


The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence of foot complications among people with type 2 diabetes mellitus in the rural part of Udupi district, Karnataka, India. A cross-sectional observational study design was conducted in the rural area of Udupi district. In the study, accredited social health activists were trained to screen people with type 2 diabetes mellitus for diabetic foot complications at a community level. Adults over 35 years of age were screened for the presence of type 2 diabetes mellitus by accredited social health activists who reside in the rural part of Udupi district. Participants with type 2 diabetes mellitus were included in the study. Blood glucose level was measured using a glucometer. Foot examination was done by visual inspection, monofilament, tuning fork, and pedal pulse. In the present study, 2110 among the total participants were found to have type 2 diabetes mellitus. The prevalence of musculoskeletal foot complications was 1218 (58%), vascular problem 466 (22.2%), sensory neuropathy 634 (30.2%), autonomic neuropathy 1729 (81.9%), ulcer 134 (6.38%), and infection 561 (26.7%) among people with type 2 diabetes mellitus. In the current study, we found 84.7% of people residing in rural Udupi had type 2 diabetes mellitus. Hence, there is a strong need to create awareness about diabetic foot care in these people.


ASHA; capacity building; diabetic foot complications; prevalence; rural Udupi; type 2 diabetes mellitus


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