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Mol Psychiatry. 2018 Aug 14. doi: 10.1038/s41380-018-0202-6. [Epub ahead of print]

Distinct brain structure and behavior related to ADHD and conduct disorder traits.

Author information

1
Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
2
Department of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
3
Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Central Institute of Mental Health, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University, Mannheim, Germany.
4
Centre for Neuroimaging Sciences, Institute of Psychiatry Psychology and Neuroscience, King's College London, London, UK.
5
Discipline of Psychiatry, School of Medicine and Trinity College Institute of Neuroscience, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland.
6
University Medical Centre Hamburg-Eppendorf, House W34, 3.OG, Martinistr. 52, 20246, Hamburg, Germany.
7
Centre for Population Neuroscience and Stratified Medicine (PONS) and MRC-SGDP Centre, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, King's College London, London, UK.
8
Department of Cognitive and Clinical Neuroscience, Central Institute of Mental Health, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University, Mannheim, Germany.
9
Department of Psychology, School of Social Sciences, University of Mannheim, 68131, Mannheim, Germany.
10
NeuroSpin, CEA, Université Paris-Saclay, F-91191, Gif-sur-Yvette, France.
11
Departments of Psychiatry and Psychology, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT, 05405, USA.
12
Sir Peter Mansfield Imaging Centre School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham, UK.
13
Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Campus Charité Mitte, Charité, Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Charitéplatz 1, Berlin, Germany.
14
Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Braunschweig and Berlin, Berlin, Germany.
15
Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale, INSERM Unit 1000 "Neuroimaging and Psychiatry", University Paris Sud-Paris Saclay, University Paris Descartes; Service Hospitalier Frédéric Joliot, Orsay; and Maison de Solenn, Paris, France.
16
Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale, INSERM Unit 1000 "Neuroimaging and Psychiatry", University Paris Sud-Paris Saclay, University Paris Descartes; and AP-HP, Department of Adolescent Psychopathology and Medicine, Maison de Solenn, Cochin Hospital, Paris, France.
17
Rotman Research Institute, Baycrest and Departments of Psychology and Psychiatry, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, M6A 2E1, Canada.
18
Clinic for Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Medical University of Vienna, Währinger Gürtel 18-20, 1090, Vienna, Austria.
19
Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University Medical Centre Göttingen, von-Siebold-Str. 5, 37075, Göttingen, Germany.
20
Department of Psychiatry, Université de Montréal, CHU Ste Justine Hospital, Montréal, QC, Canada.
21
National Institute of Mental Health, NIH, Bethesda, MD, 20892, USA.
22
Department of Social and Health Care, Psychosocial Services Adolescent Outpatient Clinic Kauppakatu 14, Lahti, Finland.
23
Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Psychosomatics and Psychotherapy, Campus Charité Mitte, Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Charitéplatz 1, Berlin, Germany.
24
Department of Psychiatry and Neuroimaging Center, Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden, Germany.
25
School of Psychology and Global Brain Health Institute, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland.
26
Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden. predrag.petrovic@ki.se.

Abstract

Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and conduct disorder (CD) exemplify top-down dysregulation conditions that show a large comorbidity and shared genetics. At the same time, they entail two different types of symptomology involving mainly non-emotional or emotional dysregulation. Few studies have tried to separate the specific biology underlying these two dimensions. It has also been suggested that both types of conditions consist of extreme cases in the general population where the symptoms are widely distributed. Here we test whether brain structure is specifically associated to ADHD or CD symptoms in a general population of adolescents (n = 1093) being part of the IMAGEN project. Both ADHD symptoms and CD symptoms were related to similar and overlapping MRI findings of a smaller structure in prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortex. However, our regions of interest (ROI) approach indicated that gray matter volume (GMV) and surface area (SA) in dorsolateral/dorsomedial prefrontal cortex and caudal anterior cingulate cortex were negatively associated to ADHD symptoms when controlling for CD symptoms while rostral anterior cingulate cortex GMV was negatively associated to CD symptoms when controlling for ADHD symptoms. The structural findings were mirrored in performance of neuropsychological tests dependent on prefrontal and anterior cingulate regions, showing that while performance on the Stop Signal test was specifically related to the ADHD trait, delayed discounting and working memory were related to both ADHD and CD traits. These results point towards a partially domain specific and dimensional capacity in different top-down regulatory systems associated with ADHD and CD symptoms.

PMID:
30108313
DOI:
10.1038/s41380-018-0202-6

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